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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
环境 171
The sea water(海水),(,) beaches(海滩) and() sediments(沉积物) on(on) the Tarragona(Tarragona) coast(海岸) contain(含有) quantities(大量) of(of) plastic(塑料) similar(similar) to(to) those(those) in(in) a(a) big() city(城市) like(类似于) Barcelona(巴塞罗那).(.) And(And) more(超过) than() half(一半) are(are) clothing(服装) fibres(纤维) from(from) washing(洗衣机) machines().(.) This() is(is) one(之一) of(of) the main(主要) findings(发现) of(of) a(a) study(研究) carried out(进行) by(by) researchers(研究人员) from(from) the URV's(URV's) research(研究) group(小组) Tecnatox(Tecnatox) and() presented(提出) last week(上周) at(at) a(a) congress(大会) in(in) Helsinki(赫尔辛基).(.) They(它们) are(are) not(不是) referring() exclusively(专门) to(to) the plastic waste(塑料废料) that(that) can(可以) be(be) seen(看到) floating() on(on) the water() or() being() washed(冲刷) up(up) by(by) the waves(海浪).(.) What(What) most() concerns(担忧) them(他们) is(is) the presence(存在) of(of) microscopic(微观) plastic waste(塑料废料) that(that) cannot be(不能) seen(看到) by(by) the naked eye(肉眼) but() which(which) can(可能) have(have) an(一个) impact(影响) on(on) human health(人类健康).(.) It() is(is) the study(研究) of(of) these(这些) particles(粒子) and() their(它们) effects(影响) that(that) is(is) the main(主要) objective(目标) of(of) the researchers(研究人员) from(from) the URV's(URV's) Department() of(of) Chemical Engineering(化工) and() the Department() of(of) Biochemistry(生物化学) and() Molecular Biology(分子生物学).(.) In(In) a(a) series(一系列) of(of) pioneering(开创) studies(研究) that(that) were(were) initiated(开创) in(in) 2018,(2018,) they(他们) analysed(分析了) samples(样本) of(of) sea water(海水),(,) marine sediment(海洋沉积物) and() sand(沙子) from(from) Tarragona(Tarragona) beaches(海滩) to(to) determine(确定) the presence(存在) of(of) plastics(塑料) and() their() possible(可能) source(来源).(.)
These(这些) plastics(塑料) are(are) washed() into(into) the sea() by(by) streams(水系) and() large(大型) rivers(河流) like(喜欢) the Ebro(埃布罗河),(,) as well as(以及) by(by) the drainage system(过滤系统) and() underwater outfalls(河道水下出口).(.) They(它们) also() come() from(from) industrial discharges(工业废物) of(of) plastic(塑料) polymers(聚合物) and() direct discharges(直接排放) into(into) the sea() by(by) boats(船只).(.) Recent(最近) studies(研究),(,) however(然而),(,) have(have) revealed(揭示) other(其他) possible(可能) sources() of(of) pollution(污染):(:) for example(例如),(,) synthetic fibres(合成纤维) that(that) come() from(from) clothes(衣服) during(during) washing(洗涤).(.) From(From) the samples(样本) taken(采取) from(from) the Tarragona(Tarragona) coast(海岸),(,) the researchers(研究人员) have(have) observed(观察) that(that) up(up) to(to) 57%(57%) of(of) all(所有) the plastics(塑料) analysed(分析) from(from) sea water(海水) are(are) microscopic(微观) fibres(纤维) from(from) clothes(衣服),(,) which(which) flow() into(into) the treatment(处理) parts(部分) and(并且) which(which) are(are) only() partially(部分地) removed(去除) before(before) the water() is(is) finally(最终) discharged(排出) into(into) the sea(海水).(.)
The results(结果) of(of) analysing(分析) the sediments(沉积物) and() the sand(沙子) from(from) the beaches(海滩) revealed(显示) the existence(存在) of(of) microscopic(微观) plastics(塑料) belonging to(属于) three(三大) main groups(主族):(:) polypropylene(聚丙烯) (42%),((42%),) polystyrene(聚苯乙烯) (37%)((37%)) and() polyethylene(聚乙烯) (16%)((16%)) .(.) All(所有) these(这些) plastics(塑料) are(are) the waste products(废品) of(of) everyday(日常) things(事情) such as(例如) bags(袋子),(,) wrappings(包装材料),(,) containers(容器) and() recipients(受者) of(of) all(各种) sorts().(.) The plastic(塑料) that(that) is(is) washed(冲刷) up(up) on(on) the beaches(海滩) does(不会) not() degrade(降解);(;) it() is(is) only(只能) broken() up(up) into(into) increasingly(越来越) smaller() pieces() by(by) the force(力量) of(of) the waves(波浪).(.) These(这些) small() pieces() of(of) plastic(塑料) are(are) referred to as(被称为) microplastics(microplastics) when(when) they(它们) are(are) just() a(a) few(少数) millimetres(毫米) in(in) size(尺寸) (up((up) to(to) 5)(5)) and() as(as) nanoplastics(nanoplastics) when(when) they(它们) are(are) smaller() than(than) one(一个) millimetre(毫米).(.) The presence(存在) of(of) this(这种) waste(废物) in(in) the sea() is(is) not() just(仅仅) a(a) problem(问题) of(of) pollution(污染);(;) it() is(is) also() a(a) health risk(保健风险).(.) Microplastics(Microplastics) can(可以) be(be) ingested(摄取) by(by) humans(人体) in(in) food(食物),(,) which(which) does() not necessarily(不一定) have to(必须) be(be) seafood(海鲜).(.) Both(Both) marine(海洋) invertebrates(无脊椎动物),(,) such as(例如) molluscs(软体动物) and() crustaceans(甲壳类动物),(,) and() the fish() that(that) live(生活) on(on) the sea bed(海床阳极) ingest(摄取) the microscopic(微小) pieces() of(of) plastic(塑料) in(in) the water() and() the sediment(沉积物).(.) Depending(根据) on(on) the size(大小) of(of) these(这些) pieces() they(它们) can(可以) block(阻塞) the digestive tract(消化道) and() cause(导致) death(死亡) or() are(are) still(仍然) in(in) their(它们) digestive system(消化系统) when(when) caught().(.)
Marine(海洋) plastics(塑料) also() absorb(吸收) potentially(潜在) toxic(有毒) heavy metals(重金属) and() organic(有机) molecules(分子).(.) These(这些) plastics(塑料) remain() in(in) the digestive system(消化系统) of(of) marine organisms(海洋有机物) and(),(,) therefore(因此),(,) can(可以) be(be) passed(传递) on(on) to(to) the people() who(who) eat() them(它们).(.) The next step(下一步) is(is) to(to) study(研究) whether(是否) the smallest(最小) plastics(塑料)()that(that)'s('s) to(to) say(),(,) nanoplastics(nanoplastics)()can(可以) cross() the membranes() of(of) cells(细胞) in(in) the liver(肝脏),(,) kidney(肾脏) and() nervous system(神经系统).(.) In(In) this(这种) regard(方面),(,) the TecnATox(TecnATox) researchers(研究人员) are(are) developing(开发) new() methods(方法) for(for) detecting(检测) these(这些) nanoplastics(nanoplastics) in(in) biological(生物) cells(细胞) that(that) will() make(make) it() possible(可能) to(to) evaluate(评估) the harmful effects(有害影响) of(of) this() waste(废物) on(on) human health(人类健康).(.)

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