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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
生态 763
Scientists(科学家) at(at) Scripps(斯克里普斯) Institution(研究所) of(of) Oceanography(海洋学) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) California(加州) San(San) Diego(圣地亚哥) have(have) found(发现) that(that) low() oxygen levels(氧含量) in(in) seawater(海水) could(可能) blind(失明) some(一些) marine(海洋) invertebrates(无脊椎动物).(.)
These(These) results(结果),(,) published(发表) recently(最近) in(in) the Journal(杂志) of(of) Experimental Biology(实验生物学),(,) are(are) the first(首次) demonstration(证明) that(that) vision(视觉) in(in) marine(海洋) invertebrates(无脊椎动物) is(is) highly sensitive(高灵敏度) to(to) the amount(含量) of(of) available oxygen(有效氧) in(in) the water().(.)
Oxygen levels(氧含量) in(in) the ocean(海洋) are(are) changing(变化) globally(全球) from() natural(自然) and() human(人为)-()induced() processes(过程).(.) Many(许多) marine(海洋) invertebrates(无脊椎动物) depend(依靠) on(on) vision(视觉) to(to) find(寻找) food(食物),(,) shelter(难所),(,) and() avoid(避免) predators(捕食者),(,) particularly(特别是) in(in) their(their) early(早期) life(生物) stages(阶段) when(when) many(许多) are(are) planktonic(浮游).(.) This() is(is) especially(尤其) true(如此) for(for) crustaceans(甲壳类动物) and() cephalopods(头足类动物),(,) which(which) are(are) common(常见) prey(猎物) items(项目) for(for) other(其他) animals(动物) and(and) whose(whose) larvae(幼虫) are(are) highly(高度) migratory(迁移) in(in) the water column(水柱).(.)
Research(研究) on(on) terrestrial animals(陆栖动物) has(has) shown(表明) that(that) low() oxygen levels(氧含量) can() affect(影响) vision(视力).(.) In fact(事实上),(,) humans(人类) can() lose(失去) visual(视觉) function(功能) in(in) low() oxygen() conditions(条件).(.) Pilots(飞行员) flying(飞行) at(at) high altitude(高空),(,) for instance(例如),(,) have(have) been(been) shown() to(to) experience(经验) vision(视力) impairment(受损) if() aircraft(飞机) fail(无法) to(to) supplement(补充) cockpits(驾驶舱) with(with) additional(额外) oxygen(氧气).(.) Additionally(此外),(,) health problems(健康问题) such as(例如) high blood pressure(高血压) and() strokes(中风),(,) both(both) associated(相关) with(with) oxygen(氧气) loss(损失),(,) can(可能) damage(损害) vision(视力).(.)
"(")With(With) all(所有) of(of) this(this) knowledge(知识) about(about) oxygen(氧气) affecting(影响) vision(视力) in(in) land animals(陆栖动物),(,) I(I) wondered(想知道) if(if) marine animals(海洋动物) would(would) react(反应) in(in) a(a) similar(类似) manner(方式),"(,") said() Lillian(Lillian) McCormick,(McCormick,) lead(领导) author(作者) of(of) the National Science Foundation(全国科学基金会)-()funded(资助) study(研究) and() Ph(博士) .(.) D.(D.) student(学生) at(at) Scripps(斯克里普斯) Oceanography(海洋学).(.)
Her() results(结果) shocked() her().(.) Studying(研究) four(四种) local(当地) California(加利福尼亚) marine(海洋) invertebrates(无脊椎动物)()market(市场) squid(鱿鱼),(,) two()-()spot() octopus(章鱼),(,) tuna(金枪鱼) crab(),(,) and() a(a) brachyuran(短臂) crab()()she() found(发现) that(that) vision(视力) was(was) reduced(降低了) by(by) 60-100(60-100) percent() under(under) low()-()oxygen() conditions(条件).(.)
Using(使用) larvae(幼虫) collected(收集) in(in) the waters(海域) off(off) Scripps(斯克里普斯),(,) McCormick(麦考密克) tested(测试) the acute(急性) response(反应)()the short-term(短期) reaction(反应) to(to) exposure(暴露) to(to) reduced(减少) oxygen(氧气)—in(—in) the vision(视觉) of(of) the larvae(幼虫).(.) She() worked(合作) with(with) Nicholas(尼古拉斯) Oesch(Oesch),(,) a(a) researcher(研究员) at(at) the UC(加州大) San(San) Diego(圣地亚哥) Department() of(of) Psychology(心理学),(,) to(to) develop(开发) a(a) setup(设置) for(for) such(这种) small() specimens(样本).(.)
"(")Most(大部) of(of) the work(工作) in(in) the lab(实验室) is(is) geared(齿轮) towards(朝着) addressing(解决) biomedical(生物医学) questions(问题) in(in) mammalian(哺乳动物) vision(视觉),"(,") said() Oesch(Oesch).(.) "So("So) it(it) has(has) been(been) fun(很有趣) to(to) step out(离开) to(to) less() traditional(传统) model systems(模型体系) and() apply(运用) our(我们) techniques(技术) to(to) a(a) completely(完全) different(不同) field(领域).(.) "(")
Placed(放置) on(on) a(a) microscope stage(载台) with(with) flowing(流动) seawater(海水) of(of) gradually(逐渐) reduced(降低) oxygen levels(氧含量),(,) the larvae(幼虫) were(were) exposed() to(to) light(光照) conditions(条件) that(that) McCormick(麦考密克) could(could) use() to(to) elicit(引发) visual(视觉) responses(反应).(.) She() measured(测量) these(these) responses(反应) using(使用) electrodes(电极) connected(连接) to(to) the retina(视网膜) of(of) the larvae(幼虫).(.) This(This) technique(技术) is(is) called(称为) an(an) electroretinogram(视网膜电图).(.)
"(")Imagine(想象) the device(设备) as(as) an(an) EKG(EKG) machine(机器) for(for) the eye(眼睛),"(,") said() McCormick.(McCormick.) "(")Instead of(而不是) measuring(测量) electrical activity(电活性) in(in) the heart(心脏),(,) we're(we're) looking() at(at) the part(一部分) of(of) the eye(眼睛) called(称为) the retina(视网膜).(.) "(")
As(As) soon() as(as) the oxygen(氧气) availability() began(开始) decreasing(下降) from() well()-()oxygenated(氧化) levels(水平),(,) such as(例如) are(are) found(发现) at() the surface(表面) of(of) the ocean(海洋),(,) McCormick(麦考密克) saw(看到) an(an) immediate(立即) response(反应) from(from) the larvae(幼虫).(.) This() was(was) especially(尤其) true(真正) in(in) the brachyuran(brachyuran) crab() and() squid(鱿鱼),(,) which(which) lost(失去) almost all(几乎处处) of(of) their(它们) vision(视力) at(at) the lowest(最低) oxygen(氧气) conditions(条件) tested(测试),(,) about(about) 20(20) percent() of(of) surface(表面) oxygen levels(氧含量).(.) Octopuses() held out(伸出) longer(),(,) with(with) retinal(视网膜) responses(反应) only() declining(下降) after(after) oxygen(氧气) was(was) reduced(减少) to(to) a(a) certain(一定) level(水平),(,) while() the tuna(金枪鱼) crabs(螃蟹) were(were) quite(相当) resilient(弹性).(.) Adult(成年) tuna(金枪鱼) crabs(螃蟹) are(are) known(已知) to(to) tolerate(够耐受) low()-()oxygen() waters().(.)
"I("I) was(was) surprised(惊讶) to(to) see(看到) that(that) even(即使) within(within) a(a) few() minutes(分钟) of(of) being(being) exposed() to(to) low() oxygen(氧气),(,) some(一些) of(of) these(these) species(物种) became(变得) practically(实际上) blind(盲目),"(,") said() McCormick.(McCormick.)
Fortunately(),(,) when(when) oxygen levels(氧含量) were(were) restored(恢复),(,) most(大多数) of(of) the specimens(样本) recovered(恢复) some(一些) visual(视觉) function(功能),(,) indicating(表明) that(that) the damage(损伤) may(可能) not(不是) be(be) permanent(永久性) for(for) short-term(短期) periods(期间) of(of) low() oxygen().(.)
McCormick(麦考密克) is(is) interested(兴趣) in(in) how(how) this(这种) reduced() vision(视力) could(could) affect(影响) animal behavior(动物行为),(,) especially(特别) in(in) those(那些) that(that) experience(经历) the most() dramatic(戏剧) vision(视力) loss(丧失).(.) These(These) animals(动物) rely(依赖) on(on) cues(线索) from(from) light(光线),(,) and(and) an(an) inability(无法) to(to) detect(检测) these(these) cues(提示) could(可能) affect(影响) their(它们) survival(存活).(.) One(一个) example(例子) is(is) migration(迁移).(.) Larvae(幼虫) of(of) these(these) species(物种) migrate(迁移) vertically(垂直),(,) sinking(下沉) to(to) deeper(深度) depths() during(during) the day(白天) and(and) ascending(上升) to(to) the surface(表面) at night(晚上),(,) and() use(使用) changes(变化) in(in) light intensity(光强) as(作为) their(their) migration(迁移) cue(线索).(.)
Additionally(此外),(,) the larvae(幼虫) rely(依靠) on(on) vision(视觉) for(for) finding(寻找) prey(捕食) and() avoiding(避开) predators(掠食者).(.) Squid(鱿鱼) larvae(幼虫) hunt() fast(快速)-()swimming() prey(捕食),(,) like(一样) copepods(桡足类),(,) and(and) their(它们) vision(视力) is(is) crucial(至关重要) for(for) this().(.)
The response(反应) speed(速度) of(of) the retina(视网膜) in(in) squid(鱿鱼) larvae(幼虫) was(was) slowed(减慢) during(during) exposure(暴露) to(to) low() oxygen(),(,) indicating(表明) that(that) this(这种) visual impairment(视觉缺陷) may(可能) inhibit(抑制) the larvae(幼虫)'s('s) ability(能力) to(to) detect(检测) copepods(桡足类) and() feed(饲料).(.) Losing(失去) the ability(能力) to(to) react(反应) to(to) changes(变化) in(in) light intensity(光强)()such as(例如) a(a) shadow(阴影) of(of) a(a) predator(捕食者)—or(—or) visually(视觉上) see(看到) prey(猎物) might(可能) decrease(降低) survival(存活率) in(in) these(these) highly(高度)-()visual(视觉) larvae(幼虫).(.) Market(市场) squid(鱿鱼) in(in) San(San) Diego(圣地亚哥) may(可能) be(be) particularly(特别) susceptible(容易) because(因为) they(它们) lay() their(their) eggs() in(in) areas(地区) prone(容易) to(to) low() oxygen(),(,) like() the seafloor(海底) near() the canyon(峡谷) off(off) La(La) Jolla(Jolla).(.)
In(In) the marine environment(海洋环境),(,) oxygen levels(氧含量) change(变化) over() daily(日常),(,) seasonal(季节),(,) and() inter()-()annual() time scales(时间尺度).(.) There(There) are(are) also() large() fluctuations(波动) of(of) oxygen(氧气) with(with) depth(深度).(.) However(但是),(,) these(these) conditions(条件) a(a)

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