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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
普通物理 11234
A(A) team() of(of) researchers(研究人员) from(from) Osaka(大阪) University(大学) and() Kirin() Holdings(控股) Company(公司),(,) Limited(有限) demonstrated(证明) that(that) the texture(纹理) formation(形成) in(in) a(a) pint() glass(玻璃) of(of) Guinness(吉尼斯) beer(啤酒) is(is) induced(引起) by() flow(流动) of(of) a(a) bubble(气泡)-()free() fluid film(流体薄膜) flowing(流动) down(down) along(沿着) the wall() of(of) the glass(玻璃),(,) a(a) world(世界) first(第一个).(.) This(这种) phenomenon(现象) is(is) found(发现) to(to) be(be) analogous(类似) to(to) roll waves(滚波) commonly(常见) observed(观察) in(in) water() sliding() downhill(下坡) on(on) a(a) rainy day(雨日).(.) Their(他们) research(研究) results(成果) were(were) published(发表) in(in) Scientific(科学) Reports(报告).(.)
Guinness(吉尼斯) beer(啤酒),(,) a(a) dark() stout(粗壮) beer(啤酒),(,) is(is) pressurized(加压) with(with) nitrogen gas(氮气).(.) When(When) it() is(is) poured(倒入) into(into) a(a) pint(品脱) glass(玻璃),(,) small()-()diameter(直径) bubbles(气泡) ((()only() 1/10(1/10) the size(尺寸) of(of) those(those) in(in) carbonated(碳酸) drinks(饮料) such as(例如) soda(苏打) and() carbonated(碳酸) water())()) disperse(分散) throughout(始终) the entire(整个) glass(玻璃) and() the texture(纹理) motion(运动) of(of) the bubble(气泡) swarm() moves(移动) downward(向下).(.)
Although(虽然) some(一些) models(模型) have() been(been) proposed(提出了) to(to) explain(解释) how(how) the downward(向下) wave() of(of) a(a) bubble(气泡) swarm() forms(形成) in(in) Guinness(吉尼斯) beer(啤酒),(,) the mechanism(机制) underlying(潜在) the texture(纹理) formation(形成) was(was) an(一个) open(开放) problem(问题).(.)
Because(因为) the opaque(不透明) and() dark-colored(深色) Guinness(吉尼斯) beer(啤酒) obstructs(阻碍) physical(物理) observation(观察) in(in) a(a) glass(玻璃),(,) and() computation(计算) using(使用) supercomputers(超级) is(is) necessary(必要) to(to) conduct(进行) numerical simulation(数值模拟) of(of) flows(流动) including(包括) a(a) vast() number() of(of) small() bubbles(气泡) in(in) the beer(啤酒),(,) the team(小组) of(of) researchers(研究) led(领导) by() Tomoaki(Tomoaki) Watamura(Watamura) produced() transparent(透明) "(")pseudo()-()Guinness(吉尼斯) fluid(流体)"(") by(通过) using(使用) light(轻微) particles(粒子) and() tap water(自来水).(.) They(他们) filmed(拍摄) the movement(运动) of(of) liquid(液体) with(with) a(a) high-speed(高速) video camera(电视录像机),(,) using(使用) laser(激光)-()induced(诱导)-()fluorescence(荧光) in order to(为了) accurately(准确) measure(测量) the movement(运动) of(of) fluid(液体).(.) In addition(另外),(,) using(使用) molecular(分子) tags(标签),(,) they(他们) visualized(可视化) the irregular movement(不规则运动) of(of) the fluid(流体).(.)
With(With) these(these) methods(方法),(,) the team(小组) poured(倒入) pseudo()-()Guinness(吉尼斯) fluid() in(in) an(an) inclined(倾斜) container(容器) to(to) observe(观察) how(how) the texture(纹理) formed(形成).(.) The texture(纹理) formation(形成) appeared(出现) only() in(in) the region(区域) of(of) about(about) 1(1) mm(1mm) away from(远离) the inclined(倾斜) wall(),(,) and() didn(没有)'t('t) appear(出现) in(in) the vertical(垂直) wall() vicinity(附近).(.)
They(他们) also() observed(观察) a(a) clear(透明)-()fluid(流体) ((()bubble(气泡)-()free())()) film flow(薄膜流动) down(down) along(沿着) the inclined(倾斜) wall() in(in) the inclined(倾斜) wall() vicinity(附近),(,) capturing velocity(吸取污染气体速度) and() thickness(厚度) of(of) bubble(气泡)-()free film(无背衬胶膜) flowing(流动) downward(向下).(.) While() the texture(纹理) appeared(出现) when(when) the glass(玻璃) inclination angles(侧倾角) were(were) small(),(,) it() did(did) not(没有) when(when) they(they) were(were) large(),(,) demonstrating(表明) that(that) the texture(纹理) formation(形成) in(in) a(a) glass(玻璃) of(of) Guinness(吉尼斯) beer(啤酒) was(was) caused(引起) by() the roll-wave(滚波) instability(不稳定性) of(of) the gravity(重力) current().(.)
Lead(主要) author(作者) Watamura(Watamura) says(),(,) "(")There() are(are) a(a) large(大量) number() of(of) small(细小) objects(物体) in(in) nature(自然界),(,) such as(例如) fine(精细) rock(岩石) particles(颗粒) transported(输送) from() rivers(河流) to(to) the sea() and() microorganisms(微生物) living(生活) in(in) lakes(湖泊) and(and) ponds(池塘).(.) Comprehending(理解) and() regulating(调节) the movement(运动) of(of) small() objects(物体) is(is) important(重要) in(in) various(各种) industrial processes(工业生产过程) as well().(.) Our(我们) research(研究) results(结果) will() be(be) useful(有助) in(in) understanding(理解) and() controlling(控制) flows(流动) of(of) bubbles(气泡) and() particles(颗粒) used(使用) in(in) industrial processes(工业生产过程) as well as(以及) protein(蛋白质) crystallization(结晶) and() cell(细胞) cultivation(培养) used(使用) in(in) the field(领域) of(of) life science(生命科学).(.) "(")

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