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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
生态 32
A(一个) multinational(跨国) team(小组) of(of) researchers(研究) has(has) identified(确定) countries(国家) where(where) agriculture(农业)'s('s) increasing(越来越) dependence(依赖) on(on) pollination(授粉),(,) coupled(耦合) with(with) a(a) lack(缺乏) of(of) crop(作物) diversity(多样性),(,) may(可能) threaten(威胁) food(粮食) security(安全) and() economic(经济) stability(稳定).(.) The study(研究),(,) which(which) was() published(发表) in(in) the journal(杂志) Global(全球) Change(变化) Biology(生物学) on(on) July(7月) 11,(11,) 2019,(2019,) is(is) the first(首次) global(全球) assessment(评估) of(of) the relationship(关系) between(between) trends(趋势) in(in) crop(作物) diversity(多样性) and() agricultural(农业) dependence(依赖) on(on) pollinators(传粉).(.)
Using(使用) annual(年度) data(数据) from(from) the U(U) .(.) N(联合) .(.) Food(粮食) and() Agriculture(农业) Organization(组织) from(from) 1961(1961) to(to) 2016,(2016,) the study(研究) showed(显示) that() the global(全球) area(面积) cultivated(种植) in(in) crops(作物) that() require(需要) pollination(授粉) by(by) bees(蜜蜂) and() other(other) insects(昆虫) expanded(扩大) by(by) 137%,(137%,) while(while) crop(作物) diversity(多样性) increased(增加) by(by) just(just) 20.5%.(20.5%.) This(这种) imbalance(不平衡) is() a(一个) problem(问题),(,) according to(按照) the researchers(研究人员),(,) because(因为) agriculture(农业) dominated(占主导地位) by(by) just(just) one(一种) or() two(两种) types(类型) of(of) crops(作物) only(只有) provides(提供) nutrition(营养) for(for) pollinators(传粉) during(during) a(a) limited(有限) window(窗口) when(when) the crops(作物) are(are) blooming(盛开).(.) Maintaining(维持) agricultural(农业) diversity(多样性) by(通过) cultivating(种植) a variety of(各种) crops(作物) that(that) bloom(开花) at(at) different(不同) times(时间) provides(提供了) a(a) more() stable(稳定) source of food(食物来源) and() habitat(栖息地) for(for) pollinators(传粉).(.)
"(")This(这项) work(工作) should(应该) sound(声音) an(an) alarm(震惊) for(for) policymakers(政策制定者) who(who) need(需要) to(to) think(考虑) about(about) how(如何) they(他们) are(are) going() to(to) protect(保护) and() foster(培育) pollinator(授粉) populations(种群) that(that) can() support(支持) the growing(增长) need(需要) for(for) the services(服务) they(他们) provide(提供) to(to) crops(作物) that(that) require(需求) pollination(传粉),"(,") said() David(大卫) Inouye(Inouye),(,) professor(教授) emeritus(荣誉) of(of) biology(生物学) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Maryland(马里兰) and() a(a) co-(共同)author(作者) of(of) the research(研究) paper(论文).(.)
Globally(全球范围内),(,) a(a) large(大规模) portion(部分) of(of) the total(总量) agricultural(农业) expansion(扩张) and() increase(增加) in(in) pollinator(传粉) dependence(依赖性) between(between) 1961(1961) and() 2016(2016) resulted(导致) from(from) increases(增加) in(in) large()-()scale(尺度) farming(农业) of(of) soybean(大豆),(,) canola(油菜籽) and() palm(棕榈) crops(作物) for(for) oil().(.) The researchers(研究人员) expressed(表示) concern(有关) over(over) the increase(增加) in(in) these(这些) crops(作物) because(因为) it() indicates(表明) a(a) rapid(快速) expansion(扩张) of(of) industrial(工业化) farming(农业),(,) which(which) is(is) associated(相关) with(with) environmentally(环境) damaging() practices(做法) such as(例如) large(大型) monocultures(单一栽培) and() pesticide(杀虫剂) use(使用) that(that) threaten(威胁) pollinators(传粉) and() can(可能) undermine(破坏) productivity(生产力).(.)
Particularly(特别) vulnerable(容易) to(to) potential(潜在) agricultural(农业) instability(不稳定) are() Brazil(巴西),(,) Argentina(阿根廷),(,) Paraguay(巴拉圭) and() Bolivia(玻利维亚),(,) where(where) expansion(扩张) of(of) pollinator(传粉)-()dependent(依赖) soybean(大豆) farms(农业) has(has) driven(推动) deforestation(森林砍伐) and() replaced(取代) rich(丰富) biodiversity(生物多样性) that() supports(支持) healthy(健康) populations(种群) of(of) pollinators(传粉) with(with) large(大规模)-()scale(尺度) single(单一)-()crop(作物) agriculture(农业) ((()monoculture(种植业))()) .(.) Malaysia(马来西亚) and() Indonesia(印度尼西亚) face(面临) a(a) similar(类似) scenario(情况) from(from) the expansion(扩张) of(of) oil palm(油棕) farming(农场).(.)
"(")Farmers(农民) are(are) growing() more(越来越) crops(作物) that(that) require(需要) pollination(授粉),(,) such(such) as(因为) fruits(水果),(,) nuts(坚果) and() oil() seeds(),(,) because(因为) there(there)'s('s) an(an) increasing(越来越) demand(需求) for(for) them(它们) and() they(他们) have(have) a(a) higher(更多) market(市场) value(价值),"(,") Inouye(Inouye) said().(.) "(")This(这项) study(研究) points out(指出) that() these(这些) current(目前) trends(趋势) are() not() great(重大) for(for) pollinators(传粉),(,) and() countries(国家) that(that) diversify(多样化) their(他们的) agricultural(农业) crops(农作物) are(are) going() to(to) benefit(受益) more than() those(那些) that(that) expand(扩大) with(with) only(只有) a(a) limited(有限) subset(亚群) of(of) crops(农作物)."(.")
Although(尽管) the study(研究) found(发现) that() countries(国家) replacing(取代) forests(森林) and() diverse(多样化),(,) heterogeneous(异质) agricultural(农业) landscapes(景观) with(with) extensive(广泛) with(with) pollinator(传粉)-()dependent(依赖) monoculture(单一) are(are) most() vulnerable(容易),(,) other(其他) countries(国家) also() face(面临) risks(风险) from(from) growing() dependence(依赖) on(on) pollinators(传粉).(.)
In(In) Europe(欧洲),(,) farmland(农田) is(is) contracting(收缩) as() development(发展) replaces(取代) agriculture(农业),(,) but() pollinator(授粉)-()dependent(依赖) crops(作物) are(are) replacing(取代) non()-()pollinator(传粉)-()dependent(依赖) crops(作物) such as(例如) rice(水稻) and() wheat(小麦) ((()which(which) are(are) wind() pollinated(传粉))()) .(.) According to(根据) the study(研究),(,) increasing(增加) need(需求) for(for) pollination(授粉) services(服务) without() parallel(平行) increases(增加) in(in) diversity(多样性) puts(使得) agricultural(农业) stability(稳定性) at(at) risk(风险) in(in) places() like(like) Australia(澳大利亚),(,) the United Kingdom(英国),(,) Germany(德国),(,) France(法国),(,) Austria(奥地利),(,) Denmark(丹麦) and() Finland(芬兰).(.)
In(In) the U(U) .(.) S.,(S.,) agricultural(农业) diversity(多样性) has(has) not() kept pace(跟上) with(with) expansion(扩张) of(of) industrial-scale(工业规模) soybean(大豆) farming(农业).(.)
"(")This(这个) work(工作) shows(表明) that(that) you() really() need(需要) to(to) look(看待) at(at) this(这项) issue(问题) country(国家) by(by) country(国家) and() region(地区) by(by) region(区域) to(to) see() what(什么)'s('s) happening(发生) because(因为) there(存在) are(are) different(不同) underlying(潜在) risks(风险),"(,") Inouye(Inouye) said().(.) "(")The bottom() line() is() that(that) if(如果) you()'re('re) increasing(增加) pollinator(传粉) crops(作物),(,) you() also() need(需要) to(to) diversify(多样化) crops(作物) and() implement(实施) pollinator(传粉)-()friendly(友好) management(管理)."(.")
Inouye(Inouye) said(表示) the researchers(研究人员) are(are) hoping(希望) this(这项) work(工作) will(will) spur(刺激) policymakers(政策制定者) and() resource(资源) managers(管理者) to(to) reevaluate(重新评估) current(当前) trends(趋势) and() practices(做法) to(to) introduce(引入) more(更多) pollinator(传粉)-()friendly(友好) management(管理) such as(例如) reducing(减少) insecticide(杀虫剂) use(使用),(,) planting(种植) edge(边缘) rows() and() flower() strips() to(to) provide(提供) nest() sites() and() food(食物) for(for) pollinators(传粉),(,) and() restoring(恢复) seminatural(半自然的) and() natural(自然) areas(区域) adjacent(相邻) to(to) crops(作物).(.)

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