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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
Majorana particles(马约喇纳粒子) are(are) very(非常) peculiar(奇特) members(成员) of(of) the family(家族) of(of) elementary particles(基本粒子).(.) First(首次) predicted(预测) in(in) 1937(1937) by(by) the Italian(意大利) physicist(物理学家) Ettore(Ettore) Majorana(马约拉纳),(,) these(these) particles(粒子) belong to(属于) the group() of(of) so-(so-)called(称为) fermions(费米子),(,) a(a) group() that(that) also() includes(包括) electrons(电子),(,) neutrons(中子) and() protons(质子).(.) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) are(are) electrically() neutral(中性) and(and) also() their(他们) own(自己) anti()-()particles(粒子).(.) These(These) exotic(外来) particles(粒子) can(可以),(,) for example(例如),(,) emerge(出现) as(作为) quasi-particles(准粒子) in(in) topological(拓扑) superconductors(超导体) and() represent(代表) ideal(理想) building(构建) blocks() for(for) topological(拓扑) quantum(量子) computers(计算机).(.)
Going() to(to) two(两个) dimensions(维度)
On(On) the road(道路) to(to) such(such) topological(拓扑) quantum(量子) computers(计算机) based on(基于) Majorana(马约拉纳) quasi-particles(准粒子),(,) physicists(物理学家) from(来自) the University(大学) of(of) ()rzburg(rzburg) together() with(with) colleagues(同事) from(来自) Harvard(哈佛大学) University(大学) (USA)((USA)) have(have) made(made) an(an) important(重要) step(一步):(:) Whereas(然而) previous(先前) experiments(实验) in(in) this() field(领域) have(have) mostly(主要) focused(集中) on(on) one-dimensional(一维) systems(系统),(,) the teams(团队) from(来自) ()rzburg(rzburg) and() Harvard(哈佛) have(have) succeeded(成功) in(in) going() to(to) two-dimensional(二维) systems(系统).(.)
In(In) this() collaboration(合作),(,) the groups() of(of) Ewelina(Ewelina) Hankiewicz(Hankiewicz) ((()Theoretische(Theoretische) Physik(Physik) IV)(IV)) and() Laurens(劳伦斯) Molenkamp(Molenkamp) ((()Experimentelle(Experimentelle) Physik(Physik) III)(III)) from(来自) the University(大学) of(of) ()rzburg(rzburg) teamed(团队) up(up) with(with) the groups() of(of) Amir(阿米尔) Yacoby(Yacoby) and() Bertrand(Bertrand) Halperin(Halperin) from(from) Harvard(哈佛大学) University(大学).(.) Their(他们) findings(发现) are(are) presented(提出) in(in) the current(当前) issue(发表) of(of) the scientific(科学) journal(期刊) Nature(自然).(.)
Two(两个) superconductors(超导体) can(可以) simplify(简化) matters(问题)
"(")Realizing(实现) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) is(is) one(之一) of(of) the most() intensely(强烈) studied(研究) topics(主题) in(in) condensed matter physics(凝聚物理学),"(,") Ewelina(Ewelina) Hankiewicz(Hankiewicz) says().(.) According to(按照) her(),(,) previous(以前) realizations(实现) have(have) usually(通常) focused(集中) on(on) one-dimensional(一维) systems(系统) such as(例如) nanowires(纳米线).(.) She() explains(解释说) that(that) a(a) manipulation(操纵) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) is(is) very(非常) difficult(困难) in(in) these(these) setups(设置).(.) It(It) would(would) therefore(因此) require(需要) significant(巨大) efforts(努力) to(to) make(做出) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) in(in) these(these) setups(设置) eventually(最终) applicable(适用) for(for) quantum(量子) computing(计算).(.)
In order to(为了) avoid(避免) some() of(of) these(these) difficulties(困难),(,) the researchers(研究人员) have(具有) studied(研究了) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) in(in) a(a) two-dimensional(二维) system(系统) with(with) strong() spin-orbit coupling(自旋轨道耦合).(.) "(")The system(系统) we(我们) investigate(研究) is(is) a(a) so-(so-)called() phase()-()controlled() Josephson junction(约瑟夫逊结),(,) that(that) is,(is,) two(两个) superconductors(超导体) that(that) are(are) separated(隔开) by(by) a(a) normal(正常) region(区域),"(,") Laurens(劳伦斯) Molenkamp(Molenkamp) explains(解释说).(.) The superconducting phase(超导相) difference() between(between) the two(两个) superconductors(超导体) provides(提供了) an(an) additional(额外) knob(旋钮),(,) which(which) makes(使得) an(an) intricate(复杂) fine-tuning(微调) of(of) the other(其他) system parameters(系统参数) at least(至少) partially(部分) unnecessary(不必要).(.)
Important(重要) step(一步) towards() an(an) improved(改进) control(控制)
In(In) the material(材料) studied(研究),(,) a(a) mercury() telluride(碲化) quantum well(量子势阱) coupled(耦合) to(to) superconducting thin-film(超导薄膜) aluminium(),(,) the physicists(物理学家) observed(观察) for the first time(首次) a(a) topological(拓扑) phase transition(相变) which(which) implies(意味着) the appearance(出现) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) in(in) phase()-()controlled() Josephson junctions(约瑟夫逊结).(.)
The setup(设置) realized(实现) experimentally(实验) here(这里) constitutes(构成) a(a) versatile(通用) platform(平台) for(for) the creation(创建),(,) manipulation(操作) and() control(控制) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子),(,) which(which) offers() several(多种) advantages(优势) compared(相比) to(to) previous(以前) one-dimensional(一维) platforms(平台).(.) According to(根据) Hankiewicz(Hankiewicz),(,) "(")this() is(is) an(an) important(重要) step(一步) towards(朝着) an(an) improved(改善) control(控制) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子).(.) "(") The proof(证明) of(of) concept(概念) of(of) a(a) topological(拓扑) superconductor(超导体) based on(基于) a(a) two-dimensional(二维) Josephson junction(约瑟夫逊结) opens up(开辟) new(新的) possibilities(可能性) for(for) the research(研究) on(on) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) in(in) condensed matter physics(凝聚物理学).(.) In particular(特别是),(,) several(若干) constraints(约束) of(of) previous(先前) realizations(实现) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) can(可以) be(be) avoided(避免).(.)
Potential(潜在) revolution(革命) in(in) computer(计算机技术) technology(技术)
At the same time(同时),(,) an(an) improved(改进) control(控制) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) represents(代表) an(an) important(重要) step(一步) towards() topological(拓扑) quantum(量子) computers(计算机).(.) Theoretically(从理论上),(,) such(这种) computers(计算机) can(可以) be(be) significantly() more() powerful(强大) than() conventional(传统) computers(计算机).(.) They(它们) thus(因此) have() the potential(可能) to(to) revolutionize(彻底改变) computer(计算机技术) technology(技术).(.)
Next(),(,) the researchers(研究人员) plan(计划) to(to) improve(改进) the Josephson junctions(约瑟夫逊结) and() move(移动) towards() junctions(连接) with(with) narrower() normal(正常) regions(区域).(.) Here(这里),(,) more(更多) localized(本地化) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子) are(are) expected(预计会).(.) They(他们) further(进一步) study(研究) additional(额外) possibilities(可能性) of(of) manipulating(操纵) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子),(,) for example(例如),(,) by(通过) using(使用) other(其他) semiconductors(半导体).(.)

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