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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
教育 449 吕海港
New () research (研究) from(from) King(国王)'s() College (学院) London (伦敦) finds (发现) that(that) teacher (教师) assessments (评估) are(are) equally(同样) as(as) reliable (可靠) as(as) standardised (标准化) exams (考试) at(at) predicting (预测) educational (教育) success(成功).(.)[PHP_EOL]The() researchers (研究人员) say(表示) their(他们的) findings(发现),(,) published (发表) today (今天) in(in) the() Journal(期刊) of(of) Child Psychology (儿童心理学) and() Psychiatry(精神病学),(,) question(质疑) whether (是否) the() benefits (好处) of(of) standardised (标准化) exams (考试) outweigh (超过) the() costs(成本).(.)[PHP_EOL]Teacher (教师) assessments (评估) were() found (发现) to(to) correlate (密切相关) strongly() with(with) exam (考试) scores(成绩) across(across) English(英语),(,) mathematics (数学) and() science (科学) from(from) age(年龄) 7-14,(7-14,) with(with) both(两种) measures(指标) equally (同样) as(as) powerful(可靠) at(at) predicting (预测) later (后来) exam (考试) success(成功).(.)Teacher (教师) assessments (评估) predicted (预测) around() 90%(90%) of(of) the() differences (差异) between(between) pupils (学生) in(in) exam (考试) performance(成绩) at(at) GCSE (GCSE) and() A-(A-)level(等级).(.)[PHP_EOL]Co-(联合)lead(首席) researcher (研究员) Dr(Dr) .(.) Kaili(Kaili) Rimfeld(Rimfeld),(,) from(from) the() Institute (研究所) of(of) Psychiatry(精神病学),(,) Psychology (心理学) &(&) Neuroscience (神经科学) (IoPPN),((IoPPN),) said():(:) 'We('我们) have(已经) shown(证明) for(首次) the() first() time () that(that) teacher (教师) assessments (评估) predict (预测) GCSE (GCSE) and() A-(A-)level(等级) results (结果) just(不只是) as() well() as() earlier (早期) exam (考试) scores(成绩).(.)The() fact (事实) that(that) exam (考试) scores(成绩) correlate (相关) so(如此) highly (高度) with(with) the() teacher (教师) assessments (评估) raises(引发了) questions(质疑) about(about) the() value (价值) of(of) the() testing (测试) culture (文化) that(that) characterises(测试) compulsory(义务) education (教育) in(in) the() UK.'(UK.')[PHP_EOL]Co-(联合)lead(首席) researcher (研究员) Dr(Dr) .(.) Margherita(Margherita) Malanchini(Malanchini),(,) from(from) the() IoPPN(IoPPN) and() the() University (大学) of(of) Texas (德克萨斯) at(at) Austin(奥斯汀),(,) said():(:) '(')While(虽然) testing (测试) can(可以) stimulate (刺激) both(both) pupils (学生) and() teachers (教师) to(to) focus(集中) their(他们的) efforts(精力),(,) high()-()stakes (风险) exams (考试) may(可能) shift(转向) the() educational (教育) experience (经验) away(away) from(from) learning (学习) towards(towards) exam (考试) performance(性能).(.)For(出于) these (这些) reasons(原因),(,) we(我们) suggest (建议) that(that) teacher (教师) assessments (评估) could (可以) be(be) relied (依靠) on() for(for) monitoring(监测) progress(进度),(,) instead of (而不是) exam (考试) scores(成绩),(,) in particular (特别是) during(during) earlier (早期) school(学年) years().'(.')[PHP_EOL]Previous (以前的) research (研究) has(已经) looked(考察) at() how (如何) either(或者) exam (考试) scores(成绩) or() teacher (教师) assessments (评估) predict (预测) educational (教育) success(成功),(,) but(但是) not(没有) compared (比较) the() two(二者).(.)The() researchers (研究人员) were() able (能够) to() make(进行) the() comparison (比较) by(by) linking(联系) data (数据) from(from) over(超过) 5,000(5,000) twin (双胞胎) pairs () in(in) the() Twins (双胞胎) Early (早期) Development(发育) Study (研究) (TEDS)((TEDS)) with(with) teacher (教师) assessments (评估) and() exam (考试) scores(成绩) in(in) the() National (国家) Pupil(学生) Database(数据库).(.)[PHP_EOL]Previous (以前) research (研究) from(from) King(国王)'s() College (学院) London (伦敦) has(已经) established(建立) that(that) genetic (遗传) factors (因素) are() the() major (主要) influence (影响) on(on) exam (考试) results(结果) for(for) GCSEs(GCSEs) and(and) A-(A-)levels(等级).(.)Using (使用) data (数据) from(from) TEDS,(TEDS,) the() researchers (研究人员) showed (显示) a(一个) strong (强烈) genetic correlation (遗传相关) between(between) teacher (教师) assessments (评估) and() exam (考试) scores(成绩),(,) confirming (证实) that(that) both(两种) measures(指标) were() identifying (识别) the() same (相同) pupils (学生) and() largely(很大程度上) measuring(衡量) the() same (相同) ability(能力).(.)[PHP_EOL]Teachers (教师) in(in) the() UK(UK) are() required(要求) to(to) assess (评估) their(他们的) pupils (学生) until(until) age(年龄) 14,(14,) and() children (孩子) sit(参加) standardised (标准化) exams (考试) throughout(throughout) school (学校) education (教育) in(in) the() UK,(UK,) including(包括) SATS (SATS) at(at) age(年龄) 7(7) and() 11,(11,) GCSEs(GCSEs) at(at) age(年龄) 16(16) and() A-(A-)levels(等级) at(at) age(年龄) 18.(18.)[PHP_EOL]Dr(Dr) .(.) Rimfeld(Rimfeld) said():(:) 'We('我们) are() not () arguing(反对) against() testing (测试) in(in) general(一般),(,) or(或者) that(that) teachers (教师) should(应该) increase (增加) their(他们的) workloads(工作量) by(by) adding (增加) further (进一步) assessments(评估).(.)On() the() contrary(相反),(,) we(我们) have(已经) demonstrated (证明) that(that) current(目前的) methods (方法) of(of) teacher (教师) assessment (评估) are(are) powerful(有力的) predictors (预测) of(of) success(成功),(,) allowing(允许) schools (学校) to(to) reduce (减少) testing (测试) and(and) still(仍然) monitor (有效地监控) progress (进展) effectively().'(.')[PHP_EOL]Dr(Dr) .(.) Malanchini(Malanchini) said():(:) '(')Our (我们的) results (结果) should(应该) inform(通知) the() debate (辩论) about(about) testing (测试) during(during) both(both) primary(小学) and() secondary(中学) education(教育).(.)Trusting (信任) teachers (教师) to(to) implement(实施) the() curriculum (课程) and() monitor(监督) progress (进展) could (可以) benefit(有利于) the() wellbeing(福祉) of(of) pupils (学生) and() teachers (教师) and() help(帮助) to(to) bring(带来) joy(快乐) back(回到) to(to) the() classroom(课堂).'(.')[PHP_EOL]Previous(之前的) research (研究) has() suggested(表明) high()-()stakes (风险) exams (考试) can(可以) impact (影响) teachers(教师的)'() morale (士气) as well (以及) as() pupils(学生的)'() wellbeing(健康) and() mental health(心理健康).(.)The() researchers (研究人员) are() now (现在) looking(正在) to(to) study (研究) the() links(联系) between(between) school (学校) experiences(经历) and() mental health (心理健康) among(among) young(年轻) people().(.)

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