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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
老兵专用医药 55
Mammary(乳腺) tumors(肿瘤) in(in) dogs() are(are) the equivalent(相当) of(of) breast cancers(乳腺癌) in(in) people(),(,) and(并且),(,) as(如同) in(in) the human(人类) disease(疾病),(,) the canine() tumors() can(可以) manifest(表现) in(in) a variety of(各种) ways(方式).(.) Some(有些) are() diagnosed(诊断) early(早期),(,) others(其他) late(晚期),(,) and() they(它们) can(可能) be(be) either() slow(缓慢) growing(生长) or(or) aggressive(攻击性).(.)
Yet(然而) current(目前) prognostic(预后) tools(工具),(,) which(which) provide(提供) information(信息) about(有关) the tumor(肿瘤) stage(阶段)()how(如何) large() or() dispersed(分散) it() is—(is—)and() grade(等级)()how(how) likely(可能) it() is() to(to) grow(生长) quickly(快速)()don(don)'t('t) always() give() veterinarians(兽医) or() owners(所有者) clear(清楚) picture() of(of) how(how) a(a) tumor(肿瘤) is() going() to(to) progress(发展),(,) and() what(什么) treatments(治疗) might(可能) be(be) most() appropriate(合适).(.)
A(一种) new(新的) "(")bio(生物)-()scoring(评分)"(") system(系统),(,) devised(设计) by() a(a) team(团队) led(领导) by(by) Karin(Karin) Sorenmo(Sorenmo),(,) a(a) veterinary(兽医学) oncologist(肿瘤学家) at(at) Penn(宾夕法尼亚)'s('s) School(大学) of(of) Veterinary Medicine(兽医学),(,) equips(装备) clinicians(临床医生) with(with) a(a) more() reliable(可靠) prognosticating(预测) method(方法).(.) The researchers(研究人员) shared(分享) their(他们) work(工作) in(in) the journal(杂志) Veterinary(兽医) and() Comparative(比较) Oncology(肿瘤学).(.)
"(")Mammary gland(乳腺) carcinomas(肿瘤) are() the most() common(常见) tumors() in(in) intact(完整) dogs() around(around) the world(世界),"(,") says() Sorenmo(Sorenmo).(.) "(")Yet(然而) we(我们) still(仍然) haven(没有)'t('t) made(made) great() progress(进展) in(in) deciding(决定) which(which) dogs() are() fine() with(with) just(just) surgical(手术) treatment(治疗),(,) which(which) dogs() might(可能) require(需要) chemotherapy(化疗),(,) and() which(which) dogs() might(可能) benefit(受益) from(from) hormonal(荷尔蒙) treatment(治疗).(.) In(In) testing(测试) this(这种) new() approach(方法),(,) we(我们) found(发现) it() helps(有助于) identify(识别) the dogs() that() develop(发展) metastasis(转移) better(更好地) than(than) other(other) methods(方法).(.) I'm(I'm) very(非常) excited(兴奋) about(about) it."(it.")
To(To) develop(开发) and() assess(评估) this(这种) new(新的) scoring(评分) method(方法),(,) Sorenmo(Sorenmo) relied(依赖) on(on) a(a) unique(独特) dataset(数据集) that(that) emerged(出现) from(from) Penn(佩恩) Vet(兽医)'s('s) Shelter(住房) Canine(犬齿) Mammary Tumor(乳房肿瘤) Program(程序).(.) This(这项) initiative(倡议),(,) spearheaded(牵头) by() Sorenmo(Sorenmo),(,) enables(使得) shelter(庇护) dogs() to(to) receive(接受) treatment(治疗) for(for) their(它们) mammary(乳腺) tumors(肿瘤),(,) then(然后) finds(找到) foster(寄养) or() permanent(永久) homes(家园) for(for) each() animal(动物).(.) Researchers(研究人员) such as(例如) Sorenmo(Sorenmo) and() others() benefit() from() studying(研究) the dogs(),(,) including(包括) how(how) they(他们) respond() to(to) treatment(治疗).(.)
The current(目前) work(工作) took() data(数据) from(from) 96(96) dogs() treated(治疗) through(通过) the program(计划),(,) as well as(以及) an(an) additional(另外) 31(31) dogs() treated(治疗) in(in) a(a) similar(类似) fashion(方式) at(at) the Norwegian(挪威) University(大学) of(of) Life(生命) Sciences(科学).(.) The records(记录) they(他们) used(使用) including(包括) the pets(宠物)'(') disease(疾病) stage(阶段),(,) grade(等级),(,) treatments(治疗) received(接受),(,) and() outcome(结果)()specifically(特定),(,) the time(时间) to(to) metastasis(转移),(,) or() spread(传播) of(of) their(它们) disease(疾病) within(within) the body().(.)
The "(")golden(黄金) rule(法则)"(") for(for) determining(确定) treatment(治疗) currently(目前),(,) Sorenmo(Sorenmo) says(),(,) is() to(to) look(观察) at(at) tumor(肿瘤) stage(阶段),(,) from() stage(阶段) I(I) when(when) the tumor(肿瘤) is(is) localized(局部) and() small(),(,) up(up) to(to) stage(阶段) IV(第四) when(when) it() has(has) spread(扩散) to(to) distant(远处) organs(器官).(.)
"(")That(That)'s('s) fine() for(for) some(某些) tumors(肿瘤) that(that) tend to(倾向于) behave(行事) in(in) a(一种) certain(某种) way(方式),"(,") Sorenmo(Sorenmo) notes(指出),(,) "(")but(但是) with(with) mammary(乳腺) tumors(肿瘤) it() can(可能) be(be) such(such) a(a) diverse(多样化) disease(疾病)."(.")
Dogs() can(可以) have(具有) advanced stage(晚期) disease(疾病) but(但是),(,) if(如果) their(他们) tumor(肿瘤) has(具有) a(a) low() grade(分级)()that(that) is,(is,) it() is() not(不是) fast(快速)-()growing(生长)()they(他们) may(可能) have() a(a) better(更好) outcome(结果) than(than) a(a) dog() with(with) a(a) lower(较低) stage() but() a(a) more() advanced(高级) grade(分级).(.) In addition(此外),(,) a(a) tumor(肿瘤)'s('s) histology(组织学),(,) or() the molecular(分子) markers(标记) that() characterize(表征) the cancer cells(癌细胞),(,) can(可以) further(进一步) influence(影响) its(它的) behavior(行为) and() the eventual(最终) outcome(结果) of(of) treatment(治疗).(.)
"We("We) really() didn(didn)'t('t) have() a(a) system(系统) to(to) pull() all(所有) the data(数据) together(一起),"(,") Sorenomo(Sorenomo) says().(.)
Looking(研究) to(to) human(人类) oncology(肿瘤学),(,) Sorenmo(Sorenmo) and() colleagues(同事) decided(决定) to(to) borrow(借用) the idea(想法) of(of) a(一种) scoring(评分) method(方法) that() has(has) been(been) used(用于) to(to) categorize(分类) breast cancers(乳腺癌).(.) They(他们) pulled(退出) together(together) three() pieces(片段) of(of) information(信息) to(to) attempt(试图) to(to) more() accurately(准确地) determine(确定) a(a) dog()'s('s) prognosis(预后):(:) stage(阶段),(,) grade(等级),(,) and() histological(组织学) type(类型).(.)
Some(一些) interesting(有趣) findings(发现) arose(出现) from(from) the statistical analysis(统计分析).(.) "We("We) found(发现) that(that) if(如果) you() had() a(a) grade() 1(1) tumor(肿瘤),(,) no() matter(问题) how(how) large() it() gets(获得),(,) the vast() majority(大部分) of(of) the time(时间) it() doesn(doesn)'t('t) cause(造成) any(任何) trouble(麻烦),"(,") she() says().(.)
Since(由于) a(a) good(良好) number(许多) of(of) the dogs() in(in) the study(研究) had(had) experienced(经历) long() delays(延误) in(in) receiving(接受) care(护理) due to(由于) being(being) abandoned() or() in(in) shelters(避难所),(,) and() thus(因此) had(had) larger() tumors(肿瘤) than(than) one(one) would(would) expect(预期) to(to) see(看到) in(in) the pet(宠物) populations(群体),(,) the researchers(研究人员) were() able(能够) to(to) detect(检测出) this(这种) size(大小)-()independent(独立) effect(效应).(.)
"It's("It's) the same(一样) thing(东西) with(with) lymph node(淋巴结) involvement(受累),"(,") says() Sorenmo(索伦莫).(.) "(")Everyone(每个人) thinks(认为) that(that) is() a(a) sign(迹象) that(that) the cancer(肿瘤) has(has) already(已经) started(开始) to(to) move(移动),(,) but() again(再次) we(我们) found(发现) that(that) with(with) a(a) grade() 1(1) tumor() it() doesn(并不)'t('t) matter(重要).(.) Those(这些) dogs() didn(没有)'t('t) develop(发生) distant(远处) metastasis(转移)."(.")
Using(利用) the overall(整体) bio(生物)-()score(评分),(,) the researchers(研究人员) were(were) able(能够) to(to) differentiate(区分) dogs() at(at) lower(较低) risk(风险) of(of) developing(发生) metastasis(转移) from(from) those(那些) at(at) a(a) higher() risk(风险).(.) If(如果) a(a) pet(宠物) has(has) a(a) higher() bio(生物)-()score(得分),(,) Sorenmo(Sorenmo) says(),(,) then(那么) a(a) veterinarian(兽医) or(或者) an(an) owner() may(可能) want(希望) to(to) consider(考虑) more() aggressive(积极) treatment(治疗) options(方案),(,) including(包括) chemotherapy(化疗).(.) Dogs() with(with) a(a) lower(较低) bio(生物)-()score(评分),(,) on the other hand(另一方面),(,) may(可能) do(do) just() as well() with(with) surgical intervention(外科手术) alone(alone).(.)
In(In) future(未来) work(工作),(,) Sorenmo(索伦莫) would(希望) like(like) to(to) build(建立) on(on) these(这些) findings(发现) by(通过) isolating(分离) the effect(影响) of(of) hormones(激素) on(on) mammary(乳腺) tumor(肿瘤) and() disease(疾病) progression(进展).(.) Since(由于) the standard(标准) of(of) care(护理) for(for) treating(治疗) dogs() in(in) the program(计划) is() to(to) spay(喷洒) them(他们),(,) she() notes(指出) that() doing() so(这样) may(可能) remove(消除) a(a) source(来源) of(of) hormones(激素) that(that) could(可能) be(be) contributing(导致) to(to) the dogs()'(') disease() in(in) many(许多) cases(案例).(.)
For(For) now(目前),(,) she() is(is) glad(高兴) to(to) have(have) developed(开发) a(一种) system(系统) that(that) can(可以) be(be) implemented(实施) easily(轻松) and() immediately(立即) into(into) treatment planning(治疗计划) decisions(决策).(.)
"I("I) try(尝试) not() to(to) publish(发表) on(on) things(东西) that(that) most(大多数) practicing() veterinarians(兽医) are(are) not() going() to(to) be(be) able(能够) to(to) use(使用),(,) like() fancy(花式) tests(测试) that(that) they(他们) won(赢得)'t('t) routinely(经常) order(订购),"(,") Sorenmo(索伦莫) says().(.) "(")This() is(is) practical(实用).(.) You() look() at(at) three(三个) different(不同) things(东西),(,) given() them(它们) a(一个) number(数字) and() add(加上) it() up."(up.")

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