智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
生态 1461
Every() spring(春天),(,) tens() of(of) thousands(成千上万) of(of) elk(麋鹿) follow(进入) a(a) wave(浪潮) of(of) green(绿色) growth(生长) up() onto(onto) the high() plateaus(高原) in(in) and() around(周围) Yellowstone(黄石公园) and() Grand(巨大) Teton(提顿) national parks(国家公园),(,) where(where) they(他们) spend(度过) the summer(夏天) calving(产犊) and() fattening(肥育) on(on) fresh(新鲜) grass(草地).(.) And() every() fall(秋天),(,) the massive(大量) herds(牧群) migrate(迁移) back down(放弃) into(into) the surrounding(周围) valleys(山谷) and() plains(平原),(,) where(where) lower(较低) elevations(海拔) provide(提供) respite(喘息) from(from) harsh() winters(冬天).(.)
These(这些) migratory(迁徙) elk(麋鹿) rely(依靠) primarily(主要) on(on) environmental(环境) cues(线索),(,) including(包括) a(一项) retreating(撤退) snowline(snowline) and() the greening(绿化) grasses() of(of) spring(春天),(,) to(to) decide(决定) when(when) to(to) make(进行) these(这些) yearly(年度) journeys(旅程),(,) shows(显示) a(a) new() study(研究) led(领导) by() University(大学) of(of) California(加州),(,) Berkeley(伯克利分校),(,) researchers(人员).(.) The study(研究) combined(结合) GPS(GPS) tracking data(跟踪数据) from(from) more(more) than(than) 400(400) animals(动物) in(in) nine(九个) major(主要) Yellowstone(黄石) elk(麋鹿) populations(种群) with(with) satellite imagery(卫星图) to(to) create(创建) a(a) comprehensive(综合) model(模型) of(of) what(what) drives(驱动) these(这些) animals(动物) to(to) move(移动).(.)
"We("We) found(发现) that(that) the immediate environment(直接环境) is() a(a) very(非常) effective(有效) predictor(预测因素) of(of) when(when) migration(迁移) occurs(发生),"(,") said() Gregory(格雷戈里) Rickbeil(Rickbeil),(,) who(who) conducted(进行) the analysis(研究) as(as) a(a) postdoctoral(博士后) researcher(研究人员) in(in) Arthur(阿瑟斯) Middleton(米德尔顿)'s('s) lab(实验室) at(at) UC(加州大学) Berkeley(伯克利分校).(.) This() is(is) in(in) contrast(对比) with(with) some(一些) other(其他) species(物种),(,) such as(例如) migratory birds(候鸟),(,) which(which) rely(依赖) on(on) changing(改变) day() length() to(to) decide(决定) when(when) to(to) move(移动),(,) Rickbeil(Rickbeil) pointed(指出) out(out).(.)
The results(结果),(,) published(发表) in(in) the current(当前) issue(问题) of(of) the journal(杂志) Global(全球) Change(变化) Biology(生物学),(,) suggest(表明) that(),(,) as(as) climate change(气候变化) reshapes(重塑) the weather(天气) and() environment(环境) of(of) the park(公园),(,) elk(麋鹿) should(应该) have() the means(办法) to(to) adjust(调整) their() migratory(迁移) patterns(模式) to(to) match(匹配) the new(新的) conditions(条件).(.)
While(虽然) this(这种) adaptability(适应性) may(可能) benefit() the survival(生存) of(of) the elk(麋鹿),(,) it() may(可能) also() have() unknown(未知) ripple(连锁反) effects(产生) in(in) local(当地) economies(经济) and() throughout(throughout) the Greater() Yellowstone(黄石) Ecosystem(生态系统)()one(之一) of(of) the last(最后) remaining(剩下) large(),(,) nearly(几乎) intact(完整) ecosystems(生态系统) in(in) Earth(地球)'s('s) northern() temperate zone(温带),(,) which(其中) encompasses(包括) about(about) 18(18) million(1800万) acres(英亩) of(of) land(土地) managed(管理) by() more than(超过) 25(25) public(公共) entities(实体) and() hundreds(数百名) of(of) private(私人) landowners(土地所有者).(.) Another(另一) recent(最近) UC(加州大学) Berkeley(伯克利分校)-()led(领导) study(研究) suggests(表明) that() climate change(气候变化) is(is) likely(可能) to(to) hit() National Parks(国家公园) harder(更加) than(than) other(其他) areas(地区) of(of) the country(国家).(.)
"(")The decisions(决定) that(that) these(这些) animals(动物) make(做出) about(about) when(when) to(to) migrate(迁移) are() absolutely(绝对) dependent() on(on) changes(变化) in(in) the landscape(景观),(,) changes(变化) that(that) are() ultimately(最终) governed() by(by) the climate(气候),"(,") said() Middleton(米德尔顿),(,) an(an) assistant(助理) professor(教授) of(of) environmental science(环境科学),(,) policy(政策) and() management(管理) at(at) UC(加州大) Berkeley(伯克利分校) and() senior(资深) author(作者) on(on) the study(研究).(.) "(")And() in(in) the future(未来),(,) with(with) climate change(气候变化),(,) we(我们) should(应该) expect(预期) the timing(时机) of(of) these(这些) mass(群众) movements(运动) to(to) be(be) altered(),(,) which(which) will() affect(影响) the other(其他) wildlife(野生动物) and() the people() who(who) depend(依赖) on(on) them(它们),(,) including(包括) predators(掠食者),(,) scavengers(清道夫) and() hunters(猎人) across(across) the ecosystem(生态系统)."(.")
Though(虽然) the migration(迁移) study(研究)'s('s) period(时间) was() too() short() to(to) say() whether() or(or) not(不是) climate change(气候变化) is(is) already(已经) affecting(影响) migratory(迁移) timing(时间),(,) the tracking data(跟踪数据) did(确实) reveal(显示) a(一个) surprising(令人惊讶) trend(趋势):(:) Elk(麋鹿) on(on) average(平均) arrived(到达) on(on) their(它们) winter(冬季) ranges(范围) 50(50) days() later() in(in) 2015(2015) than(than) in(in) 2001.(2001.) This(这一) change(变化) had(had) been(been) noted(注意到) by(by) wildlife(野生动物) managers(管理人员) in(in) the area(地区),(,) but() had(had) yet() to(to) be(be) quantified(量化) on(on) the ecosystem(生态系统) scale(规模) until now(到目前为止).(.)
"(")This(这项) [([)study(研究)](]) provides(提供了) great() insight(见解) into(into) the adaptation(适应) strategies(策略) of(of) elk(麋鹿) to(to) climate change(气候变化) in(in) the Greater() Yellowstone(黄石) Ecosystem(生态系统),"(,") said() Jonathan(乔纳森·) Jarvis(贾维斯),(,) former() director(主任) of(of) the National Park(国家公园) Service(),(,) who(who) now(现在) serves(担任) as(as) executive(执行) director(导向器) of(of) the Institute(研究所) for(for) Parks(公园),(,) People(),(,) and() Biodiversity(生物多样性) at(at) UC(加州) Berkeley(伯克利分校).(.)
Jarvis(贾维斯) noted(指出) that() more() broadly(广泛),(,) the new() picture(图片) of(of) the Yellowstone(黄石) elk(麋鹿) migrations(迁徙) provided(提供) by(by) the study(研究)'s('s) comprehensive(全面) mapping(测绘) effort(努力) "(")clearly(清楚地) demonstrate(表明) the need(必要) to(to) think(思考) and() operate(工作) at(at) the landscape(景观) scale(尺度)."(.") He() added(补充说),(,) "(")For(For) the park(公园) managers(管理者),(,) this kind(这种) of(of) research(研究) gives(提供) them(他们) options(选择) and() incentives(激励措施),(,) such as(例如) protection(保护) of(of) migration(移民) corridors(走廊) and() seasonal(季节性) habitats(栖息地),(,) for(for) ensuring(确保) elk(麋鹿) and() other(其他) keystone(梯形石) species(物种) in(in) the Greater() Yellowstone(黄石) Ecosystem(生态系统) will(will) persist(持续)."(.")
Eating() and() being() eaten()
Yellowstone(黄石公园)'s('s) approximately(大约) 20,000(20,000) migratory(迁徙) elk(麋鹿) are() among(among) the most() important(重要) large(大型) mammals(哺乳动物) in(in) the ecosystem(生态系统),(,) comprising(包含) about(about) 10(10) million() or(or) so(因此) pounds(英镑) of(of) animal(动物) biomass(生物量) pulsing(脉动) in(in) and() out of(out of) the parks(公园) and() adjacent(邻近) wilderness(荒野) areas(地区) each() year()—so(—so) where(where) they(它们) can(可以) be(be) found(找到) at(at) any(任何) given(给定) time(时候) matters() to(to) both() animals(动物) and() humans(人类) alike().(.)
"(")These(这些) elk(麋鹿) eat() a(a) lot(很多) of(of) things(东西),(,) and() they(它们) are() eaten() by(by) a(a) lot(很多) of(of) things(东西),(,) so(所以) wherever(无论) these(这些) masses(群落) of(of) hundreds() or(or) thousands(成千上万) of(of) elk(麋鹿) are(are) on(on) the landscape(景观) determines(决定) who() gets(获得) to(to) eat() and() who() doesn()'t,"('t,") Middleton(米德尔顿) said().(.) "In("In) some(某些) cases(情况),(,) this() could(可能) be(be) sensitive(敏感) populations(群体) of(of) carnivores(食肉动物),(,) like(like) grizzly(灰熊) bears(具有) or() wolves(),(,) and() on(on) the human(人类) side(方面),(,) it() could(可能) be(be) hunters(猎人),(,) some(一些) of(of) whom(其中) are() making(making) their(它们) income(收入) as() outfitters(旅行用品) and() guides(指导)."(.")
Recent(最近) studies(研究) have(have) shown(表明) that(that) threatened(受威胁) grizzly(灰熊) bears(具有) depend(依赖) heavily(严重) on(on) newborn(新生) elk(麋鹿) calves() as(as) a(a) food(食物) source(来源) in(in) spring()()right() when(when) the migration(迁徙) is(is) happening(发生)()and(并且) that(that) a(a) Yellowstone(黄石) wolf() kills(杀死),(,) on(on) average(平均),(,) 16(16) elk(麋鹿) per year(每年).(.) Meanwhile(与此同时),(,) each() fall(秋天),(,) thousands(数千) of(of) hunters(猎人) from(from) around(around) the country() pay(支付) guides(指导) for(for) the chance(机会) to(to) harvest(收获) an(an) elk(麋鹿) in(in) the wilderness(荒野) near() Yellowstone(黄石公园).(.)
While(虽然) a(一项) smattering(一知半解) of(of) studies(研究) has() investigated(研究) the migration(迁移) of(of) individual(个体) herds(畜群) in(in) the park(公园),(,) none(none) before(before) this(这种) study(研究) had(had) investigated(研究) the phenomenon(现象) on(on) an(an) ecosystem(生态系统) scale(规模).(.) To(To) get(得到) a(a) more() complete(全面) picture(情况) of(of) migration(移民),(,) Middleton(米德尔顿) partnered(合作) with(with) state() and() federal(联邦) wildlife(野生动物) managers(管理人员) in(in) the Yellowstone(黄石) region(地区) to(to) pool(汇集) information(信息) on(on) 414(414) elk(麋鹿) across(across) nine(9个) herds(牧群) that(that) had(had) been(been) fitted(安装) with(with) GPS(GPS) collars(项圈) between(between) 2001(2001) and() 2017.(2017.)
Rickbeil() then(然后) analyzed(分析了) the data(数据) to(to) pinpoint(确定) when(when) each() elk(麋鹿) made(made) its(它的) trek(跋涉) from() winter(冬季) range(距离) to(to) summer(夏季) range(范围) and() back() again() and() used(使用) satellite(卫星) images(图像) to(to) infer(推断) the conditions(条件) on(on) the ground(地面) during(during) journeys(旅途).(.)
He() found(发现) that(that) elk(麋鹿) tended to(倾向于) leave(离开) their(他们) winter(冬季) ranges(范围) and() set out(开始) to(to) their(他们) summer(夏季) ranges(范围) as(as) soon(立即) as(as) the snow() had(had) melted() and() during(during) the "(")green(绿化)-up,"(-up,") when(when) fresh(新鲜),(,) nutritious(营养) plant(植物) growth(生长) began(开始) to(to) sprout(萌芽).(.) Likewise(同样),(,) encroaching(侵占) snowfall(降雪) and() hunting(狩猎) pressure(压力) cued(提示) them(他们) to(to) make(使) the return(回归) journey(旅程).(.)
The team(团队) was() surprised(感到惊讶) by(by) the extent(程度) of(of) the elks(麋鹿)'(') flexibility(灵活性):(:) One(One) year(),(,) a(a) female(雌性) elk(麋鹿) might(可能) migrate(迁移) in(in) early() May(5月),(,) but() the next() year() in(in) late() July(7月),(,) depending(取决于) on(on) the timing(时间) of(of) snowmelt(融雪) and() green(绿化)-up.(-up.)
"(")They(它们)'ve('ve) got(得到) a(一个) big() brain(大脑) and() big() eyes(眼睛),(,) and() they(他们) can(可以) look() around(around) and(),(,) to(to) a(a) large() degree(程度),(,) see(看到) changes(变化) on(on) the landscape(景观) and() react(反应) to(to) them(他们),"(,") Middleton(米德尔顿) said().(.)
However(然而),(,) Rickbeil(Rickbeil) notes(指出),(,) the snow cover(积雪) and() vegetation(植被) couldn(无法)'t('t) fully(完全) explain(解释) why(为什么) the elk(麋鹿) are(are) now(现在) arriving(到达) so(这么) much() later(后来) at(at) their(它们) winter(冬季) ranges(范围).(.) Variations(变化) in(in) snow depth(雪深),(,) which(which) cannot be(不能) inferred(推断) from() satellite(卫星) data(数据),(,) might(可能) explain(解释) part(部分) of(of) the dramatic(剧烈) change(变化),(,) Rickbeil(Rickbeil) said().(.)
Alyson(Alyson) Courtemanch(Courtemanch),(,) who(who) manages(管理) the Greater() Yellowstone(黄石) Ecosystem(生态系统)'s('s) Jackson(杰克逊) elk(麋鹿) herd(牧群) as(as) part(一部分) of(of) her() job(工作) as(as) a(a) wildlife(野生动物) biologist(生物学家) with(with) the Wyoming(怀俄明州) Game(游戏) and() Fish(鱼类) Department(部门),(,) says() knowing(知道) the whereabouts(下落) of(of) the elk(麋鹿) is(is) critical(至关重要) to(to) her() job(工作) setting(设定) hunting(狩猎) seasons(季节) and() managing(管理) the spread(传播) of(of) diseases(疾病) among(之间) wild(野生) elk(麋鹿) and() domestic(家养) cattle().(.)
"We've("We've) been(been) observing(观察) a(a) lot(很多) of(of) really(真正) interesting(有趣) changes(变化) over(over) the past(过去) decade(十年) about(关于) the way(方式) that(that) elk(麋鹿) are() moving(移动) across(across) the landscape(景观),(,) specifically(特别) of(of) the timing(时间) of(of) the migrations(移民),"(,") said(表示) Courtemanch(Courtemanch),(,) who(who) supplied(提供) GPS(GPS) data(数据) on(on) the Jackson(杰克逊) herd(畜群) for(for) the study(研究).(.) "(")This(这项) analysis(分析) helped(有助于) confirm(确认) a(a) lot(很多) of(of) things(事情) that(that) people() on(on) the ground() had() suspected(怀疑) were(were) happening(发生),(,) but() that(that) weren(并没)'t('t) really(真正) quantified(量化)."(.")
"It("It) seems(似乎) like(like) these(这些) animals(动物) can(可以) adapt(适应) to(to) changing(变化) climates(气候),(,) which(which) is() likely(可能) a(a) good() thing(),"(,") Rickbeil(里克) said().(.) "(")But() there(there) will(将会) be(be) a(a) lot(很多) of(of) consequences(后果) to(to) these(这些) changes(变化)."(."


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