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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
环境 156
Farmers(农民) have(have) been(been) innovators(创新者) and() experimenters(实验者) for(for) millennia(数千年).(.) They(他们) developed(开发) new(新型) types() of(of) crops(农作物) and() methods(方法) of(of) farming(农业).(.)
Agronomic(农学) researchers(研究人员)()the scientists(科学家) who(who) study(研究) how(如何) our(我们) food(食物) is(is) grown()()have(have) been(been) working on(致力于) their(他们) own(自己) fields(领域).(.) When(When) they(他们) make(make) new(新的) discoveries(发现),(,) they(他们) transfer() the knowledge(知识) they(它们)'ve('ve) gained(获得) through(通过) workshops(研讨会) and() publications(出版物) to(to) farmers(农民).(.)
A(A) few(few) decades(几十年) ago(),(,) farmers(农民) and() researchers(研究人员) began(开始) working() together(together) more() closely(密切).(.) This(这种) "on-("on-)farm(农场) research(研究)"(") allows(使) farmers(农民) a(a) chance(机会) to(to) work(工作) side(侧面)-by-(-by-)side() with(with) researchers(研究人员).(.) Collaborations(合作) like this(这样) allow(允许) for(for) the testing(测试) of(of) new(新的) agriculture(农业) products(产品) and() methods(方法) in(in) real(现实)-()world(世界) conditions(条件).(.)
Laura(Laura) Thompson(汤普森) and() her() team(团队) were() interested(有兴趣) to(to) determine(确定) what(什么) motivated(动机) farmers(农民) to(to) participate(参与) in(in) on-(on-)farm(农场) research(研究).(.) So,(So,) their(他们) group(小组) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Nebraska(内布拉斯加) interviewed(采访) the 140(140) farmer(农民)-()researchers(研究人员) in(in) their(他们) network(网络).(.) The results(结果),(,) recently(最近) published(发表) in(in) Agronomy(农学) Journal(杂志),(,) can(可以) help(帮助) future(未来) collaborations(合作) improve(改进) processes(流程)()and() perhaps(可能) increase(增加) the number(数量) of(of) farmers(农民) involved(包括).(.)
"(")Part(部分) of(of) the goal(目标) was() that(that) we'd(we'd) be(be) able(能够) to(to) document(记录) these(这些) experiences(经验) and() motivations(动机),"(,") says() Thompson(汤普森).(.) "(")The hope(希望) is(is) that() it() will(will) provide(提供) some(一些) guidance(指导) to(to) others(他人) who(who) are(are) looking(寻求) to(to) start(启动) these(这些) programs(计划)."(.")
The Nebraska(内布拉斯加州) On-(On-)Farm(农场) Research(研究) Network(网络) started() in(in) 1990(1990) .(.) Since(Since) then(),(,) participating(参与) farmers(农民) have(have) taken(采取) a(a) very(非常) active(积极) role(作用).(.) They(他们) conduct(进行) the research(研究) using(使用) their(它们) own(自己) equipment(设备) and() resources(资源).(.) Conducting(进行) research(研究) on(on) several(几个) farms(农场) allows(可以) for(for) research(研究) in(in) different(不同) environments(环境) versus() a(a) singular(单一),(,) university(大学) research(研究) station().(.)
Farmers(农民) may also(也可以) propose(提出) the research(研究) question(问题).(.) That(That) was() one(之一) of(of) the motivators(动力) for(for) participating(参与).(.) "We("We) found(发现) that(that) frequently(经常) their(他们) motivation(动机) was() they(他们) wanted to(想要) find(找到) answers(答案) to(to) a(a) specific(特定) question(问题),"(,") says() Thompson(汤普森).(.)
Research(研究) topics(课题) focus(关注) directly(直接) on(on) what(what)'s('s) relevant(相关) to(to) farmer(农民)-()production(生产) questions(问题).(.) One(一个) example(例子) might(可能) be(be) to(to) compare(比较) the effects(影响) of(of) two(两种) different(不同) fertilizers(肥料) on(on) crop(作物) production(生产).(.)
But(但是),(,) choosing(选择) the research(研究) question(问题) is() often(往往) not() solely(仅仅) the idea(想法) of(of) the farmer(农民) or() university(大学) educator(教育者).(.) "We("We) found(发现) that() it() was() not() so(so) black() and() white() usually(通常),"(,") says() Thompson(汤普森).(.) "(")Choosing(选择) research(研究) projects(项目) was(was) really() collaborative(协作)."(.") Regardless(无论) of(of) who() came(提出) up(up) with(with) the question(问题),(,) the farmer(农民)'s('s) overall(整体) satisfaction(满意度) with(with) the program(计划) was() not(没有) affected(影响).(.)
Throughout(Throughout) the research(研究) process(过程) itself(本身),(,) Nebraska(内布拉斯加州) faculty(教师) provide(提供) technical(技术) expertise(专业知识) for(for) running(运行) experiments(实验).(.) They(他们) also() analyzed(分析了) data(数据) collected(收集) by(by) farmers(农民).(.)
Having() this() opportunity(机会) to(to) work() so(so) closely(密切) with(with) university(大学) faculty(教师) throughout(throughout) the season(赛季),(,) says() Thompson(汤普森),(,) is() another(另一个) motivation(动力) for(for) farmers(农民)'(') participation(参与) in(in) the program(计划).(.)
"(")One(之一) of(of) my() biggest(最大) take(take)-()aways(aways) was() how(how) much() the farmers(农民) emphasized(强调) the relationships(关系) with(with) people(),"(,") says() Thompson(汤普森).(.) "(")When(When) we(我们) asked(询问) about(about) their(他们) experience(经验) in(in) research(研究) and() what(什么) made(使) it() positive(积极),(,) the dominant(主要) reason(原因) they(他们) gave(给出) was() the interaction(互动) with(with) university(大学) people() and() other(其他) farmers(农民)."(.")
This() collaboration(合作) with(with) the university(大学) also() increased(增加) farmers(农民)'(') confidence(信心) in(in) the results(结果).(.) They(他们) viewed() the results(结果) as(as) trustworthy(值得信赖) and() unbiased(),(,) regardless(无论) if(是否) the results(结果) were() what(what) they(他们) hoped(期望) for(for),(,) says(表示) Thomson(汤姆森).(.)
After(After) the season(赛季),(,) farmers(农民),(,) university(大学) faculty(教师),(,) and() industry(行业) professionals(专业人士) attend(参加) an(an) annual(年度) meeting() to(to) discuss(讨论) their(他们) discoveries(发现).(.) Attendees(与会者) also() include(包括) farmers(农民) who(who) did(did) not() participate(参与) in(in) the program(计划) itself(本身),(,) but() are(are) interested(有兴趣) in(in) learning(了解) the results(结果) from(from) their(它们) peers(同行).(.)
"(")Farmers(农民) doing() the research(研究) are() sharing(分享) the results(结果) with(with) other(其他) people(),(,) and() they(他们) often(经常) cited(引用) the reason(原因) for(for) doing() so(这样) was(was) a(a) desire(欲望) to(to) help(帮助) other(其他) farmers(农民),"(,") says() Thompson(汤普森).(.) "So("So) that(that)'s('s) really() powerful(强大)."(.")
In addition to(除了) sharing(分享) their(他们) results(结果) with(with) other(其他) farmers(农民),(,) farmer(农民) researchers(研究人员) also(),(,) for(for) the most(most) part(部分),(,) put(付诸) their(他们) results(结果) into(into) practice(实践).(.) Seventy(七十)-()five() percent(百分之) of(of) interviewees(受访者) had(had) put(付诸) their(他们) research(研究) results(结果) into(into) practice(实践) on(on) their(他们) farm(农场) operation(经营),(,) either() by(通过) making(making) a(a) change(改变) based(根据) on(on) their(他们) results(成果),(,) or(或者) by(通过) not() making(making) a(a) change(改变) as(因为) the research(研究) confirmed(证实了) their(他们) current(目前) practice(做法).(.) And(),(,) they(他们) were(were) noticing(注意到) positive(积极) economic(经济) gain(收益) by(by) doing() so,(so,) says() Thompson(汤普森).(.) The farmers(农民) interviewed(接受采访) expressed(表示) they(他们) had(had) realized(实现了) economic(经济) gains(收益) as(as) a(a) result(结果) of(of) implementing(实施) their(它们) research(研究) findings(发现).(.) The farmers(农民) expressed(表示) this(这个) value(价值) as(as) an(an) amount(金额) saved(节省) (on((on) average(平均) $15.43($15.43) per() acre(英亩))()) or() profit(利润) gained(获得) (on((on) average(平均) $31.25($31.25) per() acre(英亩)).().)
When(When) it() comes(谈到) to(to) why(为什么) farmers(农民) enjoyed(喜欢) participating(参加) in(in) on-(on-)farm(农场) research(研究),(,) however(然而),(,) it's(it's) rooted() in(in) the peer(同伴)-()learning(学习) aspect(方面).(.)
"It's("It's) important(重要) to(to) have(have) feedback(反馈) between(between) farmers(农民) and() researchers(研究人员),"(,") says() Thompson(汤普森).(.) "I("I) think(认为) that(that) as(as) both(both) farmers(农民) and() researchers(研究人员) find(发现) value(价值) in(in) on-(on-)farm(农场) research(研究),(,) these(这些) programs(计划) will() continue(继续) to(to) grow(发展) in(in) the U(U) .(.) S.(S.) and() internationally(国际上)."(.")

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