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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
普通物理 146
Accelerators(加速器) generate(产生) beams() of(of) subatomic(亚原子) particles(粒子) for(for) cutting(尖端)-()edge(边缘) science(科学).(.) The greater() a(a) beam(光束)'s('s) intensity(强度),(,) the more(more) opportunities(机会) there(there) are(are) to(to) study(研究) particle interactions(粒子相互作用).(.) One(一种) way(方法) to(to) increase(增加) the intensity(强度) is() to(to) merge(合并) two(两个) beams(光束) with(with) a(a) technique(技术) called(称为) slip(滑移)-()stacking(堆叠).(.) However(然而),(,) when(when) combining(组合) them(它们),(,) the beams(光束)'(') interaction(相互作用) may(可能) cause(导致) instability(不稳定).(.)
Here(这里),(,) I(I) summarize(总结) the results(结果) of(of) a(一项) study(研究) in(in) which(其中) I(I) modeled(模拟) these(这些) effects(影响) and() concluded(结论) that(that) a(a) special(特殊) feedback(反馈) would() make(使) the beams(光束) much more() stable(稳定).(.) The required() feedback(反馈) was(was) then(然后) designed(设计) and() implemented(实施) by() Nathan(Nathan) Eddy(涡流) and() his() Fermilab(Fermilab) team(团队).(.) The result(结果) was() a(a) 20(20) percent() increase(增加) in(in) proton beam(质子束) intensity(强度) and() a(a) reduction(减少) in(in) beam() loss(损失) by(by) a(a) factor() of(of) two(two).(.)
Slip(滑动)-()stacking(堆叠) doubles(加倍) the intensity(强度) of(of) particle beams(粒子束).(.) However(然而),(,) it() makes(使) them(它们) more() prone(容易出现) to(to) instabilities(不稳定性) and() particle(颗粒) losses(损失).(.) To(To) suppress(抑制) these(这些) undesirable(不良) effects(影响),(,) an(an) analysis(分析) and() resulting() feedback(反馈) helped(帮助) pave(铺平) the way(道路) for(for) future(未来) particle accelerators(粒子加速器) that(that) rely(依靠) on(on) slip(滑移)-()stacking(堆叠) to(to) achieve(实现) high intensities(高强度).(.)
By(通过) stacking(堆叠) two(两个) separate(独立),(,) full() to(to) the-()brim() beams(光束),(,) researchers(研究人员) maximize(最大化) the number(数量) of(of) particles(粒子) circulating(循环) through(通过) the ring().(.) That(That)'s('s) good() for(for) creating(创建) high-intensity(高强度) beams(光束),(,) but() there()'s('s) a(a) trade-off(权衡).(.)
Accelerator(加速器)-()generated(产生) beams(光束) are(are) made(made) of(of) bundles() of(of) particles(粒子) called(称为) bunches().(.) Accelerating(加速) two(两个) separate(单独) beams(光束) that() are() not only(不仅) in(in) close(接近) proximity(接近) but() whose(谁的) constituent(成分) bunches() are(are) in(in) a(一种) constant(不断) dance(跳舞) with(with) each other(彼此) is(is) a(a) highly(高度) charged(充电) situation(情况).(.) In(In) Fermilab(Fermilab)'s('s) Recycler(回收) Ring(环[形])—a(—a) major(主要) component(组成部分) of(of) the lab(实验室)'s('s) accelerator(加速器) chain()()each(每个) beam() comprises(包含) about(about) 500(500) bunches().(.) Such(Such) a(a) high() number(数量) made(使) coupled(耦合)-()bunch() interaction(交互) a(a) powerful(强大) source(来源) of(of) collective(集体) instabilities(不稳定).(.) Partly(部分) because() the distances(距离) between(between) the two(两个) slip(滑移)-()stacking(堆叠) beams()'(') bunches() are() always(总是) changing(变化),(,) the beam() dynamics(动力学) is(is) complicated(复杂) to(to) model(模型).(.)
One(一个) major(主要) effect(影响) is() that(that) the interacting(相互作用) bunches() bump(撞击) each other(彼此) off(off) their(它们) orbits(轨道).(.) A(A) mathematical model(数学模型) of(of) the two()-()beam(光束) system(系统) was(was) suggested(提出) and() analyzed(分析了),(,) followed(然后) by(by) a(a) proposal(建议) for(for) a(a) feedback(反馈) suppressing(抑制) these(这些) undesirable(不希望) departures(偏离) from(from) the path(路径).(.) In(In) the feedback system(反馈系统),(,) pickup(传感器) sensors(传感器) placed(放置) inside() the circular accelerator(圆形加速器) measure(测量) the offsets(偏移) of(of) the bunches() from(from) their() intended(预定) orbits(轨道).(.) An(An) amplifier(放大器) receives(接收) this() information(信息) and() then(然后) sends(发送) it() to(to) a(a) kicker(踢球者) that() gives() the straying() bunches() a(a) kick(踢球) that(that) sends(发送) them(它们) on(on) the right(正确) path(路径).(.)
Soon(不久) after(after) the idea(意见) of(of) the special(特殊) feedback(反馈) was(was) proposed(提出),(,) an(an) accelerator(加速器) team(团队) led(领导) by() Eddy(涡流) designed(设计) and() installed(安装) the device(设备) into(into) the Recycler(回收) Ring(环[形]).(.) As(As) a(a) result(结果),(,) the Recycler(回收) beam(光束) losses(损失) were() nearly(几乎) halved(减半),(,) and() the beam(光束) intensity(强度) increased(增加) by(by) 20(20) percent();(;) the proton beam(质子束) power(功率) achieved(达到) 700(700) kilowatts(千瓦),(,) one(之一) of(of) the goals(目标) of(of) Fermilab(验室)'s('s) accelerator(加速器) program(计划).(.)

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