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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
演化 3641
A(A) team() of(of) researchers(研究人员) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Burgundy(勃艮第) has(has) found(发现) that(that) a(a) certain(某种) type(类型) of(of) monogamous(一夫一妻制) female() fish() exhibits() a(a) pessimistic(悲观) bias(偏见) when(when) separated(分离) from(from) its(它的) mate(配偶).(.) In(In) their(他们) paper(论文) published(发表) in(in) Proceedings(会刊) of(of) the Royal(皇家) Society(学会) B,(B,) the group(小组) describes(描述了) experiments(实验) they(他们) conducted(进行) with(with) convict(囚犯) cichlid(慈鲷) fish() and() what(what) they() found(发现).(.)
When(When) humans(人类) pair()-()bond(结合) in(in) a(一种) sexually() monogamous(一夫一妻) relationship(关系),(,) there() is() an(an) element(因素) of(of) emotion(情感) involved(包括)()but() what(what) about(about) other(其他) animals(动物)?(?) That(That) was(was) the question(问题) the researchers(研究人员) sought(试图) to(to) answer(回答).(.) To(To) learn(了了解) more(更多),(,) they(他们) conducted(进行了) experiments(实验) with(with) convict(囚犯) cichlid(慈鲷) fish() in(in) their(它们) lab(实验).(.)
In(In) the wild(),(,) convict(囚犯) cichlid(慈鲷) fish() mate() monogamously(一夫一妻).(.) After(After) mating(交配),(,) when(when) the female(雌性) produces() eggs(),(,) the males(雄性) hang(悬挂) around(四处) to(to) protect(保护) her(her) and() the eggs().(.) And() after(after) the eggs() hatch(孵化),(,) the young(年轻人) are(are) protected(保护) by(by) both(both) parents(父母).(.) To(To) learn(地了解) more(更多) about(about) the bonds(债券) they(他们) forge(伪造),(,) the researchers(研究人员) conducted(进行了) a(一个) two(two)-()part(部分) experiment(实验).(.)
In(In) the first(第一) part(部分) of(of) the experiment(实验),(,) the researchers(研究人员) separated() a(一个) large(大型) tank(水箱) into(into) three(三个) sections(部分).(.) They(他们) placed(放置) a(a) female(女性) in(in) the middle(中间) tank(水箱) and() a(a) male(男性) in(in) each(每个) of(of) the other(另外) two(两个) sections(部分).(.) The team(团队) watched() to(to) see(see) which(其中) she() demonstrated(了解) a(一个) preference(偏好) for(for) by(通过) cozying(哄骗) up(up) to(to) one(one) or(or) the other(other).(.) The researchers(研究人员) then(然后) put() one(one) of(of) the males(男性) in(in) with(with) the female(女性) and() allowed(允许) them() to(to) mate().(.) They(它们) report(报告) that() the females(女性) who(who) were() allowed(允许) to(to) mate(配对) with(with) their(他们) preferred(喜欢) choice(选择) spawned(产卵) faster(更快),(,) had(拥有) more(更多) offspring(后代) and(并且) took(took) better(更好地) care(照顾) of(of) them(他们) compared(相比) to(to) those(那些) paired(配对) with(with) a(a) rejected(拒绝) male(男性).(.)
In(In) the second(第二) part(部分) of(of) the experiment(实验),(,) the researchers(研究人员) trained(训练) the females(女性) to(to) recognize(识别) the difference(区别) between(between) a(a) box(盒子) containing(含有) food(食物) and() one(one) that(that) was(was) empty().(.) Then(然后),(,) they(他们) introduced(推出) a(一个) new() box(盒子) that(that) required(需要) investigation(调查) to(to) determine(确定) if(是否) it() held() food(食物).(.) The level(水平) of(of) interest(兴趣) interest(兴趣) they(他们) showed(表现) in(in) investigating(调查) the new() box(盒子) was() considered(认为) a(a) marker(标志) of(of) her() mood(心情).(.) They(他们) found(发现) that(that) when(when) her() chosen(选择) mate(伴侣) was() present(现在) in(in) the tank(坦克) with(with) her(),(,) she() expressed(表示) far(远远) more(more) interest(兴趣) in(in) checking(检查) out(out) the new() box(盒子) than(than) if(如果) the rejected(拒绝) male(男性) was(was) with(with) her().(.) The researchers(研究人员) claim(声称) this() is() an(一个) example(例子) of(of) "(")pessimistic(悲观) bias(偏见),"(,") demonstrating(证明) that(that) the females(女性) do(do) become(变得) gloomier(阴沉) when(when) separated(分开) from(from) their(它们) desired(所需) mate(配偶).(.)
The box() in(in) the front(前面) of(of) the tank(坦克) was(was) only() introduced(介绍) in(in) experiment(实验) 2.(2.) Credit(信用):(:) Proceedings(会刊) of(of) the Royal(皇家) Society(学会) B:(B:) Biological(生物) Sciences(科学) (2019)((2019)) .(.) DOI:(DOI:) 10.1098/rspb.2019.0760(10.1098/rspb.2019.0760)
To(To) effectively(有效) measure(衡量) each() fish()'s('s) mental(精神) response(反应) to(to) separation(分离),(,) researchers(研究人员) from(from) the University(大学) of(of) Burgundy(勃艮第) in(in) Dijon(第戎) trained(训练) females(女性) to(to) use() their(他们) mouths() to(to) open(打开) two(两个) small() boxes(盒子),(,) placed(放在) either(either) side(两侧) of(of) their(它们) tanks(坦克)

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