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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
普通物理 2007
Cutting() a(a) magnet(磁铁) in(in) half() yields(产生) two(两个) magnets(磁铁),(,) each(每个) with(with) its(它的) own(自己) north() and() south pole(南极).(.) This() apparent(显然) absence(缺失) of(of) an(一个) isolated(孤立) magnetic pole(磁极),(,) or() "(")magnetic monopole(磁单极子),"(,") has() puzzled(直困扰着) physicists(物理学家) for(for) more(more) than(than) a(a) century(世纪).(.) It() would() seem(似乎) perfectly(完全) natural(自然) for(for) a(a) magnetic monopole(磁单极子) to(to) exist(存在);(;) Maxwell(麦克斯韦)'s('s) equations(方程式) would(would) reflect(反映) complete(完全) symmetry(对称性) between(between) electricity() and() magnetism() if(如果) particles(粒子) with(with) magnetic charge(磁荷) were() observed(观察).(.) But() the mystery(神秘) remains():(:) While() every(每个) known(已知) particle(粒子) is() either() electrically() charged(带电) or(or) neutral(中性),(,) none(没有) have(have) been() found(发现) to(to) be(be) magnetically() charged().(.)
In(In) 1931,(1931,) Paul(保罗) Dirac(狄拉克) formally(正式) proposed(提出了) a(一种) theory(理论) for(for) magnetic monopoles(磁单极子),(,) which(which) might(可能) be(be) produced(产生) in(in) conditions(条件) like() the ones() found(发现) at(at) the LHC(撞机) .(.) Scientists(科学家们) from(from) the ATLAS(ATLAS) Collaboration(协作) at(at) CERN(欧洲核) have(have) designed(设计了) a(一种) specialized(专门) technique(技术) to(to) search(搜索) for(for) evidence(证据) of(of) such(这种) particles(粒子).(.) According to(根据) Dirac(狄拉克),(,) magnetic monopoles(磁单极子) of(of) fundamental(基本) magnetic charge(磁荷) (1((1) gD)(gD)) ionize(电离) matter(物质) the same(相同) way() a(a) high()-()electric-charge(电荷) object(物体) (HECO)((HECO)) would(would).(.) Large() energy(能量) deposits(沉积物),(,) proportional(比例) to(to) the charge(电荷) squared(平方),(,) would() be(be) left() behind(behind) in(in) the ATLAS(ATLAS) detector(探测器) through(通过) which(which) these(这些) particles(粒子) traveled().(.)
Thus(因此),(,) a(a) search(寻找) for(for) magnetic monopoles(磁单极子) with(with) these(这些) characteristics(特征) goes(密切) hand() in(in) hand() with(with) a(a) search(寻找) for(for) stable(稳定) particles(粒子) of(of) many(许多) times() ((()more(more) than(than) 20)(20)) the charge(电荷) of(of) the electron(电子).(.) ATLAS(ATLAS) physicists(物理学家) pick(挑选) out(out) collision(碰撞) events(事件) with(with) characteristics(特征) expected(预期) of(of) HECOs(HECO) or() magnetic monopoles(磁单极子) from() data(数据) collected(收集) by(by) ATLAS'(ATLAS') tracking(跟踪) detector(探测器) and() calorimeter(量热计) systems(系统) for(for) further(进一步) analysis(分析).(.) These(这些) candidate(候选) events(事件) are(are) identified(识别) by(通过) discriminating(区分) regions(区域) with(with) large() and(以及) narrow() energy depositions(能量沉积) in(in) the calorimeter(热量计) and() corresponding(相应) traces(跟踪) of(of) high() ionization(电离) in(in) the transition(过渡)-()radiation(辐射) tracker(跟踪器).(.)
The ATLAS(图谱) Collaboration(合作) has(has) released(公布) its(它的) first(第一) results(结果) from(from) the search(寻找) for(for) magnetic monopoles(磁单极子) and() HECOs(HECO) in(in) 13(13) TeV(TeV) proton(质子)-()proton(质子) collisions(碰撞).(.) Given(鉴于) that(that) no(没有) evidence(证据) of(of) either() magnetic monopoles(磁单极子) or(or) HECOs(HECO) was(was) observed(观察),(,) constraints(约束) were(were) established(建立) on(on) spin(自旋)-0(-0) and() spin(自旋)() particles(粒子) assuming(假设) the Drell(spin-½)-()Yan(Yan) electromagnetic(电磁) pair() production(生产) mechanism(机制).(.)
To date(迄今为止),(,) the search(搜索) is() the most() sensitive(敏感) study(研究) on(on) magnetic(磁性) monopoles(单极子) in(in) the range(范围) of(of) 1(1) to(to) 2(2) gD(gD) magnetic charge(磁荷),(,) surpassing(超过) the results(结果) of(of) the dedicated(专用) MoEDAL(MoEDAL) experiment(实验),(,) which(which) nonetheless(尽管如此) probes(探索) a(a) larger(更大) range(范围).(.) The study(研究) also() improves(改进),(,) by(by) approximately(大约) a(a) factor() of(of) five(5),(,) the previous(先前) constraints(限制) on(on) the direct(直接) production(产生) of(of) magnetic(磁性) monopoles(单极子) with(with) magnetic(磁性) charge(电荷) 1(1) gD(gD) ((()see(研究) figure()).().) Moreover(此外),(,) it() is() the first(第一) search(搜索) to(to) study(研究) HECOs(HECO) with(with) charges(电荷) greater(更大) than(than) 60(60) times() the charge(电荷) of(of) the electron(电子),(,) thereby(从而) exceeding(超过) the ranges(范围) covered(涵盖) by(by) previous(先前) studies(研究) by(by) the CMS(CMS) and() ATLAS(ATLAS) Collaborations(合作).(.)
ATLAS(ATLAS) has(has) once(once) more(more) proven(证明) to(to) be() a(一种) powerful(强大) instrument(工具) for(for) scientific(科学) study(研究).(.) Through(通过) its() general purpose(通用) detecting(检测) capabilities(功能),(,) physicists(物理学家) will() be(be) able(能够) to(to) continue(继续) hunting(寻找) for(for) exotic() particles(粒子) like() the magnetic monopole(磁单极子).(.)

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