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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
环境 434
Anyone(人都) who(who) enjoys(喜欢) whitewater(激流) rafting(漂流) in(in) places() like(like) the Colorado(科罗拉多) River() owes(欠款) a(a) debt(债务) of(of) gratitude(感谢) to(to) the enormous(巨大) boulders(巨石) that(that) create(塑造) the foaming(起泡) undulation(波动) known as(被称为) rapids(急流),(,) and() new(新的) research(研究) appears(似乎) to(to) shed() more() light() on(on) how() these(这些) big() rocks(岩石) help(帮助) shape(形状) the towering() canyons(峡谷) around(周围) them(它们).(.)
Charles(博尔) M(M) .(.) Shobe(Shobe) and() Rachel(雷切尔) C.(C.) Glade(林间空地),(,) geology(地质) graduate(研究生) students(学生) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Colorado(科罗拉多) Boulder(),(,) argue() in(in) an(an) article(文章) recently(最近) published(出版) online() in(in) the prestigious() journal(杂志) Geology(地质)()and() scheduled(计划) for(for) publication(发表) in(in) print(印刷) in(in) July(7月) 2019—(2019—)those(那些) same(相同) rocky(岩石) monoliths(巨石) play(发挥) a(a) major(重要) role(作用) in(in) the geologic(地质) evolution(演化) of(of) such(such) canyons(峡谷) across(across) vast(广阔) spans(跨越) of(of) time(时间)()perhaps(可能) even(甚至) more than() the channels(通道) themselves(本身).(.)
"(")Our(我们) results(结果) imply(意味着) that(that) the existing(现有),(,) channel(通道)-()driven(驱动) models(模型) for(for) canyon(峡谷) evolution(演化) may(可能) be(be) overly(过于) simplistic(简单化),(,) even(即使) when(when) canyons(峡谷) evolve(发展) under(under) a(a) steady(稳定) external(外部) forcing(强迫),"(,") they(他们) write().(.)
"(")People(人们) have(have) been(been) interested(兴趣) in(in) river(河流) canyons(峡谷) for(for) a(a) long(长期) time(time),(,) how(如何) they(他们) control(控制) the landscape(景观) and() erosion(侵蚀),"(,") says() Glade(莱德),(,) whose(谁的) research(研究) focuses(重点) on(on) the geomorphology(地貌) of(of) canyon(峡谷) walls() and() who(who) completed(完成了) her() Ph(博士) .(.) D.(D.) last(最后) month(个月).(.) "(")But() there(there) is(is) not(没有) a(a) lot() of(of) understanding(了解) about(about) how(how) they(他们) work(运作) physically(身体)."(.")
The paper(论文) is(is) co-(共同)authored(撰写) by() the pair(两人)'s('s) faculty(职工) advisors(顾问),(,) Distinguished(杰出) Professor(教授) of(of) Geology(地质学) Robert(罗伯特) Anderson(安德森) and() Professor(教授) of(of) Geology(地质学) Greg(格雷格) Tucker(塔克).(.)
Shobe(Shobe) and() Glade(林间空地) created(创建) a(一个) computer model(计算机模型) to(to) understand(了解) the complex(复杂的),(,) two()-()way(方法) interplay(相互作用) between(between) river-bottom(河底) boulders(巨石) and() hillsides(山坡) to(to) determine(确定) the course(过程) of(of) canyon(峡谷) evolution(演化).(.)
Rivers(河流) that(that) flow() through(through) "(")soft()"(") geological formations(地质构造) tend(往往) to(to) be(be) wide() and() flat(),(,) like() the Mississippi(密西西比河) or() South() Platte(普拉特).(.) But(但是) rivers(河流) that(that) flow() across(across) "(")resistant() rock(岩层) formations(形成)"—("—)those(那些) with(with) hard(坚硬) "(")caprock(caprock)"(") in(in) the upper layers(上层)()tend to(倾向于) form(形成) narrow(狭窄) canyons(峡谷) with(with) steep(陡峭) upper(上层) hillsides().(.) From() a(a) bird()'s('s) eye(眼睛) view(角度),(,) canyon(峡谷) rims(边缘)()the cliffs(悬崖) marking(标志) the canyon(峡谷) edge(边缘)()form(形成) a(a) bell() shape(形状) as(as) the canyon(峡谷) widens(扩展) downstream(下游).(.)
Initially(最初),(,) erosion(侵蚀) will() carry() sediment(沉积物) downstream(下游),(,) eventually(最终) loosening(松动) large() blocks() that(that) tumble(摔倒) into(into) the river(河流) below(below).(.) At(At) first(),(,) the presence(存在) of(of) such(这种) blocks() tends(往往) to(to) slow() the process(过程) of(of) erosion(侵蚀),(,) which(which) in(in) turn(从而) makes(使) hillsides(山坡) less() steep(陡峭).(.)
"(")You() can(可以) see(看到) that(that) the bigger() the blocks() are(are),(,) the more(more) pronounced(明显) the bell() shape() of(of) the canyon(峡谷),"(,") Glade(莱德) says().(.) "(")The big() blocks(地块) slow() down(down) a(a) canyon(峡谷)'s('s) ability(能力) to(to) erode(侵蚀) over(over) time(时间) and() play(发挥) a(a) major(重要) role(作用) in(in) changing(改变) canyon(峡谷) shape(形状)."(.")
However(然而),(,) Shobe(Shobe) and() Glade(林间空地)'s('s) model(模型) showed(表明) that(that) rather(不仅) than(than) simply(简单地) slowing(减缓) down(down) the process(过程),(,) the presence(存在) of(of) large() boulders(巨石) in(in) the channel(通道) created(导致) a(一个) feedback loop(反馈环) with(with) steep(陡峭) hillsides(山坡),(,) resulting(导致) in(in) an(an) oscillating(振荡) rate(速度) of(of) erosion(侵蚀) and() canyon(峡谷) evolution(演变).(.)
"(")This(这种) interplay(相互作用) between(between) channel(通道) and() hillslope() dynamics(动力学) results(导致) in(in) highly(高度) variable() long-term(长期) erosion rates(侵蚀率),"(,") they(他们) write().(.)
"(")The prediction(预测) is,(is,) if(如果) intrinsic(固有) features(特征) of(of) rock(岩石) layers() govern(治理) eventual(最终) shape(形状),(,) then(那么) the larger() pieces() the rock(岩石) fractures(骨折) into(into)"—("—)generally(一般) speaking(),(,) the harder() the rock(岩层),(,) the larger() the block()—"(—")the more(越来越) bell()-()shaped() the canyon(峡谷) is() going() to(to) end(结束) up(up) and() the more(more) unpredictable(不可预测) the erosion(侵蚀) dynamics(动力) will() be,"(be,") Shobe(Shobe) says().(.)
This() spring(春天),(,) the pair() were(were) given() an(an) opportunity(机会) to(to) field(现场)-()test(测试) the model(模型)'s('s) predictions(预测),(,) courtesy(礼貌) of(of) a(a) grant(资助) from(from) the Geological Society(地质学会) of(of) America(美国).(.) They(他们) traveled(前往) to(to) northern(北部) New() Mexico(墨西哥) where(where) they(他们) used(使用) a(a) drone(无人机) to(to) photograph() canyon(峡谷) walls() and() boulders(巨石) in(in) Rio() Grande(格兰德),(,) and() are() now(现在) in(in) the process(处理) of(of) creating(创建) a(a) 3-D(3-D) map(地图) of(of) the area(地区) surveyed(调查).(.)
They(他们) are(are) testing(测试) one(之一) of(of) their(他们) main(主要) model(模型) predictions(预测):(:) "(")The size(大小) of(of) the boulders(巨石) corresponds(对应) to(to) the steepness(陡峭) of(of) the canyon(峡谷) walls(),"(,") Glade(莱德) says().(.) "If("If) there()'s('s) a(a) pile(一堆) of(of) big() boulders(巨石),(,) the steeper(陡峭) the walls() should(应该) be."(be.")
The model(模型) allows(允许) for(for) the movement(运动) of(of) blocks() downstream(下游) at(at) times(时间) of(of) higher() flow(流量),(,) but() the researchers(研究人员) found(发现) erosion(侵蚀) marks(痕迹) in(in) the field(现场) indicating(表明) that() boulders(巨石) have(have) been(been) wedged(楔入) in(in) place() for(for) a(a) long() time(time).(.)
"(")While() they(他们) can(可以) definitely(肯定) move(移动) in(in) large() floods(洪水),(,) when(when) they(他们) are(are) big() enough(足够),(,) they(他们) can() sit() there(那里) for(for) hundreds(数百) to(to) thousands(数千) of(of) years(),"(,") Shobe(Shobe) says().(.) "(")That(That)'s('s) why(为什么) the size(大小) of(of) boulders(巨石) is() so(如此) important(重要) in(in) shaping(塑造) rivers(河流)."(.")
Shobe(Shobe) and() Glade(林间空地) write() that() these(这些) "(")channel(河道)-()hillslope(山坡) dynamics(动力学)"(") are(are) significant(显著) enough(足以) to(to) outweigh(超过) other(other) factors(因素),(,) such as(例如) the rate(速度) of(of) geologic(地质) uplift(隆起),(,) "(")calling(调用) into(into) question(质疑) the ability(能力) of(of) landscapes(景观) to(to) record(记录) tectonic(构造) and() climatic(气候) signals(信号) or() to(to) reach(达到) a(a) steady(稳定) state(状态) during(during) this() time(时间).(.)
Better(更好地) understanding(了解) how(如何) canyons(峡谷) with(with) resistant(抗性) rock(岩层) formations(形成) are(are) formed(形成) has(具有) implications(意义) beyond(超越) geology(地质),(,) Shobe(Shobe) says().(.)
"(")The erosion(侵蚀) and() breakdown(破裂) of(of) rock(岩石) is(is) intimately(密切) connected(相关) with(with) the climate(气候) cycle(循环) and() the balance(平衡) of(of) CO2(二氧化碳) in(in) the earth(地球)'s('s) atmosphere(大气).(.) The rates(速度) at(at) which(which) rock(岩石) is() eroded(侵蚀),(,) and() sediment(沉积物) is() transported(运输),(,) is(is) tied(相关) to(to) the climate(气候) cycle(周期) as well as(以及) the long-term(长期) evolution(演变) of(of) biodiversity(生物多样性),"(,") he() says().(.)
It() is(is) uncommon(并不常见) for(for) two(two) Ph(博士) .(.) D.(D.) candidates(候选人) to(to) publish(发表) ground(地面)-()breaking(突破) new() research(研究) in(in) a(a) prestigious(着名) journal(期刊).(.)
"We're("We're) really() pleased(很高兴),"(,") Shobe(Shobe) says().(.) "(")This() collaboration(合作) shows(表明) that(that) two(two) grad(研究生) students(学生) can(可以) get(得到) together(一起) and() come up with(提出) something(东西) new(新的) and() unique(独特) while(同时) learning(学习) to(to) collaborate(合作) as(as) early(早期)-()career(职业) scientists(科学家)."(.")

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