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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
普通物理 2055
It's(It's) a(一个) process(过程) so(so) fundamental(基本) to(to) everyday life(日常生活)—in(—in) everything(一切) from() your(你的) morning(早晨) coffeemaker(coffeemaker) to(to) the huge(大型) power(电力) plant(电厂) that(that) provides(提供) its() electricity(电力)()that(that) it's(it's) often(通常) taken() for(for) granted(理所当然):(:) the way(方式) a(a) liquid(液体) boils(沸腾) away(away) from() a(a) hot() surface(表面).(.)
Yet(然而) surprisingly(惊讶),(,) this(这个) basic(基本) process(过程) has(has) only() now(),(,) for the first time(首次),(,) been(been) analyzed(分析) in(in) detail(详细) at(at) a(a) molecular(分子) level(水平),(,) in(in) a(a) new() analysis(分析) by(by) MIT(麻省理) postdoc(博士后) Zhengmao(Zhengmao) Lu,(Lu,) professor(教授) of(of) mechanical engineering(机械工程) and() department() head(主任) Evelyn(Evelyn) Wang(),(,) and() three() others(其他) at(at) MIT(MIT) and() Tokyo(东京) University(大学).(.) The study(研究) appears(似乎) in(in) the journal(杂志) Nature Communications(Nature Communications).(.)
"It("It) turns(事实证明) out(out) that(that) for(for) the process(过程) of(of) liquid(液相) to(to) vapor(气相) phase change(相变),(,) a(a) fundamental(基本) understanding(理解) of(of) that(that) is(is) still(仍然) relatively(相对) limited(有限),"(,") Wang() explains(解释).(.) "(")While(虽然) there(there)'s('s) been(been) a(a) lot(很多) of(of) theories(理论) developed(开发),(,) there(there) actually(实际上) has() not() been(been) experimental evidence(实验证据) of(of) the fundamental(基本) limits(限制) of(of) evaporation(蒸发) physics(物理学)."(.")
It's(It's) an(一个) important(重要) process(过程) to(to) understand(理解) because(因为) it() is() so(so) ubiquitous(无处不在).(.) "(")Evaporation(蒸发) is(is) prevalent(普遍) in(in) all(各种) sorts() of(of) different(不同) types(类型) of(of) systems(系统中) such as(例如) steam generation(蒸汽发生) for(for) power(动力) plants(),(,) water() desalination(海水淡化) technologies(技术),(,) membrane distillation(膜蒸馏),(,) and() thermal() management(管理),(,) like() heat pipes(热管),(,) for example(例如),"(,") Wang() says().(.) Optimizing(优化) the efficiency(效率) of(of) such(such) processes(过程) requires(需要) a(a) clear(清楚) understanding(了解) of(of) the dynamics(动态) at(at) play(play),(,) but() in(in) many(许多) cases(情况) engineers(工程师) rely(依靠) on(on) approximations(近似) or() empirical(经验) observations(观察) to(to) guide(指导) their(他们) choices(选择) of(of) materials(材料) and() operating conditions(操作条件).(.)
By(通过) using(使用) a(a) new technique(新技术) to(to) both(both) control(控制) and() detect(检测) temperatures(温度) at(at) the surface(表面) of(of) an(an) evaporating(蒸发) liquid(液体),(,) the researchers(研究人员) were(were) able(能够) to(to) identify(确定) a(a) set() of(of) universal(通用) characteristics(特征) involving(涉及) time(时间),(,) pressure(压力) and() temperature changes(温度变化) that(that) determine(确定) the details(细节) of(of) the evaporation(蒸发) process(过程).(.) In(In) the process(过程),(,) they(他们) discovered(发现) that(that) the key(关键) factor(因素) determining(决定) how fast(速度) the liquid(液体) could(可能) evaporate(蒸发) was() not() the temperature difference(温差) between(between) the surface(表面) and() the liquid(液体),(,) but() rather(相当) the difference() in(in) pressure(压力) between(between) the liquid(液体) surface(表面) and() the ambient(环境) vapor(蒸汽).(.)
The "(")rather(相当) simple(简单) question(问题)"(") of(of) how(如何) a(a) liquid(液体) evaporates(蒸发) at(at) a(a) given(给定) temperature(温度) and() pressure(压力),(,) has() remained() unanswered(未解决) despite(尽管) many(许多) decades(十年) of(of) study(研究),(,) says(表示) Pawel(帕维尔) Keblinski(Keblinski),(,) professor(教授) and() head(主任) of(of) Department() of(of) Materials Science(材料科学) and() Engineering(工程) at(at) Rensselaer(Rensselaer) Polytechnic(理工学院) Institute(研究所) (RPI),((RPI),) who(who) was(was) not() involved(包括) in(in) this(这项) work(工作).(.) "(")While(虽然) theorists(理论家) speculated(推测) for(for) over(over) a(一个) century(世纪),(,) experiment(实验) was() of(of) little(没有) help(帮助),(,) as(因为) seeing(看到) the evaporating(蒸发) liquid(液体)-()vapor(蒸汽) interface(界面) and() knowing(知道) the temperature(温度) and() pressure(压力) near() the interfaces(界面) is(is) extremely() challenging(具挑战性),"(,") he() says().(.)
This(这项) new() work(工作),(,) Keblinski(Keblinski) says(),(,) "(")brings(使) us(我们) closer(更接近) to(to) the truth(事实)."(.") Along(Along) with(with) other(其他) new(新的) observational(观测) techniques(技术) developed(开发) by(by) others(其他),(,) the new(新的) insights(见解) will() "(")put() us(我们) on(on) the path(路径) to(to) finally(最终) quantify(量化) the evaporation(蒸发) process(过程) after(经过) a(一个) century(世纪) of(of) efforts(努力),"(,") he() says().(.)
The researchers(研究人员)'(') success(成功) was() partly(部分) the result(结果) of(of) eliminating(消除了) other(其他) factors(因素) that(that) complicate(复杂化) the analysis(分析).(.) For example(例如),(,) evaporation(蒸发) of(of) liquid(液体) into(into) air(空气) is(is) strongly(强烈) affected(影响) by(by) the insulating properties(绝缘性质) of(of) the air(空气) itself(本身),(,) so(因此) for(for) these(这些) experiments(实验) the process(过程) was(was) observed(观察) in(in) a(a) chamber() with(with) only() the liquid(液体) and() vapor(蒸汽) present(存在),(,) isolated(隔离) from(from) the surrounding air(周围空气).(.) Then(然后),(,) in order to(为了) probe(探测) the effects(影响) right() at(at) the boundary(边界) between(between) the liquid(液体) and() the vapor(蒸汽),(,) the researchers(研究人员) used(使用) a(一个) very(非常) thin membrane(薄膜) riddled(谜语) with(with) small() pores() to(to) confine() the water(),(,) heat(加热) it() up,(up,) and() measure(测量) its(它的) temperature(温度).(.)
That() membrane(),(,) just() 200(200) nanometers(纳米) ((()billionths(十亿分之一) of(of) a(a) meter())()) thick(),(,) made(制成) of(of) silicon() nitride(氮化硅) and() coated() with(with) gold(),(,) carries(通过) water() through(through) its() pores() by() capillary(毛细管) action(作用),(,) and() is() electrically() heated(加热) to(to) cause(原因) the water() to(to) evaporate(蒸发).(.) Then(然后),(,) "we("we) also() use(使用) that() membrane() as(as) the sensor(传感器),(,) to(to) sense() the temperature(温度) of(of) the evaporating(蒸发) surface(表面) in(in) an(an) accurate(准确) and() noninvasive(非侵入) way(方式),"(,") Lu(Lu) says().(.)
The gold() coating(涂层) of(of) the membrane() is(is) crucial(至关重要),(,) he() adds(补充).(.) The electrical resistance(电阻) of(of) the gold() varies(变化) directly(直接) as(as) a(a) function(功能) of(of) the temperature(温度),(,) so(因此) by(通过) carefully(仔细) calibrating(校准) the system(系统) before(before) the experiment(实验),(,) they(他们) are(are) able(能够) to(to) get(得到) a(a) direct(直接) reading(读取) of(of) the temperature(温度) at(at) the exact(确切) point() where(where) evaporation(蒸发) is(is) taking place(发生),(,) moment(即时) by(by) moment(时刻),(,) simply(只需) by(by) reading(读取) the membrane()'s('s) resistance(电阻).(.)
The data(数据) they(他们) gathered(收集) "(")suggests(表明) that(that) the actual(实际) driving force(驱动力) or() driving(驱动) potential(潜力) in(in) this(这个) process(过程) is() not() the difference(差异) in(in) temperature(温度),(,) but() actually(实际) the pressure difference(压力差),"(,") Wang() says().(.) "(")That(That)'s('s) what(what) makes() everything() now(现在) aligned(一致) to(to) this() really(非常) nice() curve(曲线),(,) that(that) matches() well(well) with(with) what(what) theory(理论) would(would) predict(预测),"(,") she() says().(.)
While(虽然) it() may(may) sound(听起来) simple(简单) in(in) principle(原则),(,) actually(实际上) developing(开发) the necessary(必要) membrane() with(with) its(它的) 100-(100-)nanometer(纳米)-()wide() pores(),(,) which(which) are() made(制成) using() a(a) method() called(称为) interference(干涉) lithography(光刻),(,) and(并且) getting() the whole(整个) system(系统) to(to) work(工作) properly(正常) took() two(two) years() of(of) hard() work(工作),(,) she() says().(.)
Overall(总体),(,) the findings(研究结果) so far(迄今) "(")are(are) consistent(一致) with(with) what(what) theory(理论) predicts(预测),"(,") Lu(Lu) says(),(,) but() it() is(is) still(仍然) important(重要) to(to) have(have) that(that) confirmation(确认).(.) "(")While(虽然) theories(理论) have() predicted(预测) things(事情),(,) there(there)'s('s) been(been) no(no) experimental evidence(实验证据) that(that) the theories(理论) are() correct(正确),"(,") Wang() adds(补充).(.)
The new(新的) findings(发现) also() provide(提供) guidance(指导) for(for) engineers(工程师) designing(设计) new() evaporation(蒸发)-()based(基于) systems(系统中),(,) providing(提供) information(信息) on(on) both(both) the selection(选择) of(of) the best(最佳) working(工作) fluids(流体) for(for) a(a) given(给定) situation(情况),(,) as well as(以及) the conditions(条件) of(of) pressure(压力) and() removal(去除) of(of) ambient(环境) air(空气) from() the system(系统).(.) "(")Using(使用) this(这个) system(系统) as(as) a(a) guideline(指导) you() can(可以) sort(分类) of(of) optimize(优化) the working conditions(工作条件) for(for) certain(某些) kinds(种类) of(of) applications(应用),"(,") Lu(Lu) says().(.)
This() team(团队) "(")did() a(a) series(一系列) of(of) elegant(优雅) experiments(实验) designed(旨在) to(to) confirm(确认) theoretical(理论) predictions(预测),"(,") says() Joel(乔尔) Plawsky(Plawsky),(,) professor(教授) of(of) chemical(化学) and() biological engineering(生物工程) at(at)
RPI,(RPI,) who(who) was(was) not(没有) involved(参与) in(in) this(这项) work(工作).(.) "(")The apparatus(设备) was(was) unique(独特) and() painstakingly(刻苦地) difficult(难以) to(to) fabricate(制造) and() operate(操作).(.) The data(数据) was(was) exceptional(特殊) in(in) its(它的) quality(质量) and() detail(细节).(.) Any(任何) time(时候) one(一个) can(可以) collapse(塌陷) a(a) large(大量) spread(传播) of(of) data(数据) by(通过) developing(开发) a(a) dimensionless(无量纲) formulation(公式),"(,") that(that) is,(is,) one(one) that(that) applies(适用) equally(同样) well(well) under(under) a(a) wide(广泛) variety(各种) of(of) conditions(条件),(,) "(")that(that) represents(代表) a(a) major(重大) advance(进步) for(for) engineering(工程学),"(,") he() says().(.)
Plawsly(Plawsly) adds(补充),(,) "(")There() are(are) many(很多) questions(问题) that(that) this(这项) work(工作) opens up(开辟) about(about) the behavior(行为) of(of) different(不同) fluids(流体) and() of(of) fluid(流体) mixtures(混合物).(.) One(One) can(可以) imagine(想象) many() years()'(') worth(值得) of(of) follow(后续)-on(-on) work(工作)."(.")

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