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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
材料科学 1211
Bioinspired(Bioinspired) engineering(工程) strategies(策略) rely(依赖) on(on) achieving(实现) the combined(组合) biological(生物学) properties(特性) of(of) strength(强度) and() toughness(韧性) inherent(固有) in(in) nature(自然界).(.) Tissue(组织) engineers(工程师) and() materials(材料) scientists(科学家) therefore(因此) aim(目标) to(to) construct(构建) intelligent(智能),(,) hierarchical(分层) biomimetic(仿生) structures(结构) from(from) limited(有限) resources(资源).(.) As(As) a(一种) representative(代表性) material(材料),(,) natural(天然) nacre(珍珠层) maintains(保持) a(a) brick()-()and()-()mortar() structure(结构) that(that) allows() many(许多) viable(可行) toughening(增韧) mechanisms(机制) on(on) multiple(多种) scales(尺度上).(.) Such(这种) naturally(天然) occurring(存在) materials(材料) demonstrate(表现) an(an) outstanding(突出) combination(组合) of(of) strength(强度) and() toughness(韧性),(,) unlike(不同) any(任何) synthetic(合成),(,) engineered(工程) biomaterial(生物材料).(.)
In(In) a(一种) recent(最近) study(研究),(,) Yunya(Yunya) Zhang() and() co-(共同)workers(工人) at(at) the departments(部门) of(of) Mechanical(机械) and() Aerospace Engineering(航天工程),(,) Materials Science(材料科学) and() Atom(原子)-()Probe(探针) Tomography(层析成像) in(in) the U(U) .(.) S.(S.) developed(开发) a(一项) bioinspired(生物) Ni/Ni3C(Ni/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) to(to) mimic(模仿) nacre(珍珠层)-()like() brick()-()and()-()mortar(砂浆) structure(结构) with(with) Ni(Ni) powders(粉末) and() graphene(石墨烯) sheets().(.) They(他们) showed(表明) that(that) the composite(复合材料) achieved(实现) 73(73) percent() increase(提高) in(in) strength(强度) with(with) only() a(a) 28(28) percent() compromise(折衷) in(in) ductility(延展性) to(to) indicate(表明) a(a) notable(显着) improvement(提高) in(in) toughness(韧性).(.)
In(In) the study(研究),(,) the researchers(研究人员) developed(开发) optimized(优化) material(材料) of(of) graphene(石墨烯)-()derived(衍生),(,) nickel()-() (Ni),((Ni),) titanium()-() (Ti)((Ti)) and() aluminum()-() (Al)((Al)) based() composites(复合材料) (Ni-Ti-Al/((Ni-Ti-Al/) Ni3C(Ni3C) composite(复合))()) that() retained(保持) high() hardness(硬度) of(of) up(up) to(to) 1000(1000) °C.(°C.) The materials(材料) scientists(科学家们) unveiled(推出) a(一种) new() method(方法) in(in) the work(工作) to(to) fabricate(制造) smart(智能) 2-D(2-D) materials(材料) and() engineer(设计) high()-()performance(性能) metal(金属) matrix() composites(复合材料).(.) The composites(复合材料) displayed(展示) a(一种) brick()-()and()-()mortar() structure(结构) via(通过) interfacial reactions(界面反应) to(to) develop(开发) functionally(功能) advanced(先进) Ni-C(Ni-C) based() alloys(合金) for(for) high-temperature(高温) environments(环境).(.) The results(结果) are(are) now(现已) published(发表) in(in) Science(科学) Advances(进展).(.)
Next(下一代)-()generation(生成) materials(材料) should(应该) inherently(固有) combine(结合) properties(特性) of(of) strength(强度) and() toughness(韧性),(,) although(尽管) their(它们) pursuit(追求) results(导致) in(in) a(a) compromise(折衷) between(between) hardness(硬度) and() ductility(延展性).(.) In(In) engineered(工程) materials(材料),(,) an(an) initiated(引发) fracture(裂缝) can(可以) propagate(传播) rapidly(快速) without(没有) any(任何) shield(防护),(,) whereas() biological(生物) structures(结构) can(可以) allow(允许) hierarchical(分层) architectures(结构) made(made) of(of) non-toxic(无毒) and() limited(有限) resources(资源) to(to) deviate(偏离) crack(裂缝) opening(开口).(.) A(一个) common(常见) example(例子) is() mother()-of-(-of-)pearl(珍珠) or() nacre(珍珠母),(,) composed(组成) of(of) aragonite(文石) ((()form(形式) of(of) CaCO3),(CaCO3),) platelets(血小板) and() biopolymer(生物聚合物).(.) In(In) the brick()-()and(并且)-()mortar(砂浆) structure(结构),(,) the aragonite(文石) platelets(小片) act as(充当) bricks() for(for) load(承载) bearing(轴承),(,) and() the biopolymer(生物聚合物) acts as(充当) a(a) mortar(砂浆) binding(结合) the aragonite(文石) platelets(小片) together(一起).(.) During(During) fracture(断裂) in(in) nacre(珍珠母),(,) the structure(结构) of(of) mineral(矿物) bridges() can(可以) shield(屏蔽) the crack(裂缝) opening(开口),(,) while() biopolymer(生物聚合物) layers(分层) dissipate(消散) the fracture(裂缝) energy(能量) to(to) prevent(防止) large(大规模)-()scale(尺度) delamination(分层).(.)
Materials(材料) scientists(科学家) previously(以前曾) attempted(试图) to(to) mimic(模仿) the architecture(结构) of(of) nacre(珍珠层) with(with) remarkable(显著) success(成功).(.) However(然而),(,) the intrinsically(内在) low() plasticity(塑性) of(of) ceramics(陶瓷) and() polymers(聚合物) used(使用),(,) limited(限制) their(它们) potential(潜在) mechanical(机械) activity(活性).(.) Researchers(研究人员) therefore(因此) expected(预期) to(to) clone(克服) nacre(珍珠层)'s('s) architecture(结构) with(with) stronger(更强) constituents(成分) such(such) as() metal(金属) incorporated(结合) composites(复合材料),(,) in(in) a(一项) more() promising(希望) yet() challenging(具挑战性) task(任务).(.) Scientists(科学家) previously(之前) used(使用) Nickel() (Ni)((Ni)) and its(及其) alloys(合金) in(in) diverse(不同) applications(应用) due to(由于) compatibility(兼容性) in(in) high temperatures(高温) and() extreme(极端) environments(环境) with(with) outstanding(出色) mechanical(机械性能) performance(性能) and() stability(稳定性).(.) In(In) the present(目前) work(工作),(,) therefore(因此),(,) Zhang() et() al.(al.) investigated(研究) if() graphene(石墨烯)-()enabled(使得),(,) high()-()performance(性能) Ni() matrix() composites(复合材料) with(with) nacre(珍珠层)-()like(),(,) brick()-()and()-()mortar(砂浆) structure(结构) could(可以) be(be) engineered(设计) by(通过) scalable(可扩展) and() feasible(可行) procedures(程序).(.)
For(For) this(),(,) Zhang() et() al.(al.) first(首先) formed(形成了) a(a) graphene(石墨烯)-()delivered(交付) Ni/Ni3C(Ni/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) with(with) a(a) characteristic(特有的) bioinspired(生物),(,) brick()-()and()-()mortar() architecture(结构) using(使用) conventional(传统) powder metallurgy(粉末冶金).(.) They(它们) homogenously(均匀) coated() Ni(Ni) powders(粉末) with(with) graphene(石墨烯) during(during) shear mixing(切混合) and() freeze drying(冻干) and() dissolved(溶解) carbon() into(into) Ni(Ni) at(at) high temperatures(高温) to(to) facilitate(促进) the sintering process(烧结过程).(.) The Ni3C(Ni3C) platelets(血小板) formed(形成) during(during) the process(过程) served as(作为) major(主要) load(负载) bearers(承载),(,) strengthening(加强) the composites(复合材料),(,) while() the Ni(Ni) matrix(基质) ensured(确保) ductility(延展性).(.)
Due to(由于) the mix(混合) of(of) strengthening(增强) and() toughening(增韧) mechanisms(机制) introduced(引入) in(in) the method(方法),(,) the final(最终) sample(样品) showed(显示) an(an) improved(提高了) strength(强度) of(of) 73(73) percent() and() only(only) 28(28) percent() reduction(降低) in(in) ductility(延展性) to(to) cause(引起) notable(显着) toughness(韧性) enhancement(强化).(.) Zhang() et() al.(al.) then(然后) included(包括) titanium() (Ti)((Ti)) and() aluminum() (Al)((Al)) in(in) the graphene(石墨烯)-()derived(衍生) composite(复合材料) to(to) form(形成) Ni-Ti-Al/(Ni-Ti-Al/) Ni3C(Ni3C) as(as) a(a) superalloy(超合金).(.) The scientists(科学家们) propose(建议) to(to) use(使用) the 2-D(2-D) material(材料) enabled(使得) powder(粉末) on(on) different(不同) material(材料) constituents(成分) to(to) create(创造) possibilities(可能性) for(for) new(新的) metal(金属) matrix() composites(复合材料).(.)
They(他们) then(然后) conducted(进行了) tests(测试) to(to) investigate(研究) the microstructure(微观结构) and() mechanical(机械性能) performance(性能) of(of) graphene(石墨烯)-()enabled(使得) Ni/(Ni/) Ni3C(Ni3C) composites(复合材料) using(使用) energy(能量)-()dispersive(色散) X-(X-)ray(射线) spectroscopy(光谱) (EDS)((EDS)) and() high-resolution(高分辨) transmission(透射) electron(电子) microscopy(显微镜) (HRTEM).((HRTEM).) They(他们) confirmed(证实了) the composition(成分) of(of) the new() material(材料) and() showed(表明) that(that) the material(材料) did(did) not(没有) break(破裂) during(during) the process(过程) of(of) intricate(复杂) manufacture(制造).(.) The graphene(石墨烯)-()derived(衍生) Ni/Ni3C(Ni/Ni3C) composites(复合材料) showed(显示出) outstanding(杰出) mechanical(机械性能) performance(性能),(,) observed(观察) using(使用) dog() bone() shaped() samples(样品) of(of) the composites(复合材料).(.) The scientists(科学家们) used(利用) the combined(综合) strength(强度) and() ductility(延展性) in(in) the present(当前) work(工作) to(to) indicate(表明) that(that) the bioinspired(生物) brick()-()and()-()mortar() architecture(结构) efficiently(有效地) mitigated(减轻) the conflict(冲突) between(between) strength(强度) and() toughness(韧性).(.)
To(To) understand(了解) the stiffening(硬化),(,) strengthening(强化) and() toughening(增韧) mechanisms(机制) of(of) the graphene(石墨烯)-()derived(衍生) Ni/(Ni/) Ni3C(Ni3C) composite(复合材料),(,) Zhang() et() al.(al.) conducted(进行) nanoindentation(纳米压痕) studies(研究) and() obtained(获得) the Young()'s('s) modulus(模量) of(of) the material(材料).(.) They(他们) showed(表明) that(that) the Ni3C(Ni3C) platelets(血小板) enhanced(增强) the Young()'s('s) modulus(模量) of(of) the novel() material(材料) for(for) increased(增加) hardness(硬度).(.) The resulting(所得) structures(结构) showing(显示) hard() and() reduced() modulus(模量) maps() to(to) present(呈现) an(an) alternating(交替) hard()-()soft()-()structure(结构).(.) Then(然后) using(使用) atom(原子) probe(探针) tomography(断层扫描) (APT)((APT)) maps(),(,) they(他们) showed(显示出) homogenously(均匀) dispersed(分散) carbon atoms(碳原子) in(in) the nickel() matrix(基质).(.)
The graphene(石墨烯)-()derived(衍生) Ni/Ni3C(Ni/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) showed(显示) obvious(明显) plastic deformation(塑性变形) and() higher() toughness(韧性) compared(相比) with(with) pure() Ni,(Ni,) the structural integrity(结构完整性) of(of) the new() material(材料) could(可以) deviate(偏离) cracks(裂缝) to(to) prevent(防止) their() opening(开口),(,) much(much) like(一样) natural(天然) nacre(珍珠层).(.) The scientists(科学家) also() showed(展示) the appearance(外观) of(of) metal(金属) bridges() for(for) effective(有效) crack(裂纹) deflection(偏转),(,) where(where) the layered(层状) architecture(结构) blunted() the crack tip(裂纹尖端),(,) preventing(防止) further(进一步) crack propagation(裂纹扩展) to(to) experimentally(实验) prove(证明) the brick()-()and()-()mortar(砂浆) architecture(结构) of(of) Ni/(Ni/) Ni3C(Ni3C) contributing(有助于) to(to) toughness(韧性) and() ductility(延展性) without(而无需) crack(裂纹) induction(诱导).(.)
Zhang() et() al.(al.) used(使用) Ni() alloys(合金) due(因为) to(to) their(它们) outstanding(出色) capability(能力) to(to) withstand(承受) high temperatures(高温) and() creep(蠕变) resistance().(.) To(To) verify(验证) high temperature(高温) performance(性能),(,) the scientists(科学家们) added(添加) titanium() (Ti,((Ti,) 2(2) percent())()) and() aluminum() (Al,((Al,) 2(2) percent())()) into(into) the Ni/(Ni/)graphene(石墨烯) powders(粉末) for(for) sintering(烧结).(.) The resulting(得到) Ni-Ti-Al/Ni3C(Ni-Ti-Al/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) also() showed(显示出) brick()-()and()-()mortar(砂浆) architecture(结构) and() stripe(条纹)-()like(like)-()grains(晶粒).(.) The earlier(早期) Ni/(Ni/) Ni3C(Ni3C) composites(复合材料) maintained(保持) a(a) high hardness(高硬度) from() room temperature(室温) to(to) 300(300) °C,(°C,) although() afterwards(之后) the hardness(硬度) rapidly(迅速) decreased(下降).(.) In(In) comparison(),(,) the Ni-Ti-Al/Ni3C(Ni-Ti-Al/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) developed(开发) thereafter(此后),(,) showed(显示出) no(没有) hardness(硬度) reduction(降低) up(up) to(to) 500(500) °C.(°C.) The new(新的) composites(复合材料) were(were) relatively(相对) smooth(光滑) at(at) room temperature(室温) and(并且) showed(显示出) oxidized(氧化) surfaces(表面) with(with) irregular(不规则) particles(颗粒) at(at) 1000(1000) °C(°C) .(.) Based on(基于) the alloy(合金) recipes(配方) and() heat treatments(热处理) introduced(引入) in(in) the study(研究),(,) the scientists(科学家们) propose(提出) using(使用) the novel(新型) composites(复合材料) to(to) engineer(设计) the next(下一代)-()generation(生成) superalloys(高温合金) for(for) potential(潜在) temperature() elevated(升高) applications(应用),(,) including(包括) aircraft(飞机) gas turbines(燃气轮机) and() spacecraft(航天器) airframes(机身).(.)
In(In) this(这种) way(方式),(,) Zhang() and() colleagues(同事) designed(设计) and() developed(开发) a(一种) prototypical(原型) graphene(石墨烯)-()derived(衍生) Ni/Ni3C(Ni/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) with(with) nacre(珍珠层)-()inspired(风格) brick()-()and()-()mortar() architecture(建筑).(.) They(他们) conducted(进行了) extensive(广泛) characterization(表征) studies(研究) to(to) investigate(研究) and() understand(了解) the material(材料) properties(特性) of(of) the newly() developed(开发) composites(复合).(.) The Ni-Ti-Al/Ni3C(Ni-Ti-Al/Ni3C) composite(复合材料) showed(显示出) superior() strength(强度) at(at) 1000(1000) °C(°C) compared(相比) to(to) commercial(商业) superalloys(超合金).(.) The scientists(科学家们) envision(设想) this(这一) promising(有前途) new() strategy(战略) to(to) design(设计) and() synthesize(合成) advanced(先进),(,) bioinspired(生物) materials(材料) to(to) achieve(实现) exceptionally() high() mechanical(机械) robustness(强度) for(for) a(a) wide(广泛)-()range(范围) of(of) applications(应用) in(in) materials science(材料科学) and() multidisciplinary(多学科) fields(领域).(.)

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