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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
The tube() anemone(海葵) Isarachnanthus(Isarachnanthus) nocturnus(nocturnus) is(is) only(只有) 15(15) cm(厘米) long() but() has(具有) the largest(最大) mitochondrial genome(线粒体基因组) of(of) any(任何) animal(动物) sequenced(测序) to date(迄今为止),(,) with(with) 80,923(80,923) base pairs(碱基对).(.) The human() mitochondrial genome(线粒体基因组) ((()mitogenome(mitogenome)),(),) for example(例如),(,) comprises(包含) 16,569(16,569) base pairs(碱基对).(.)
Tube() anemones(海葵) ((()Ceriantharia(Ceriantharia))()) are() the focus(焦点) of(of) an(an) article(文章) recently(最近) published(发表) in(in) Scientific(科学) Reports(报告) describing(描述了) the findings(结果) of(of) a(一项) study(研究) led(领导) by() ()rgio(rgio) Nascimento(Nascimento) Stampar(Stampar),(,) a(a) professor(教授) in(in) São(São) Paulo(保罗) State() University(大学)'s('s) School(学院) of(of) Sciences(科学) and() Letters() (FCL-UNESP)((FCL-UNESP)) at(at) Assis(Assis) in(in) Brazil(巴西).(.)
The study(研究) was(was) supported(支持) by(通过) FAPESP(FAPESP) via(via) a(a) regular(定期) grant(拨款) for(for) the project(项目) "(")Evolution(进化) and() diversity(多样性) of(of) Ceriantharia(Ceriantharia) ((()Cnidaria(刺胞菌属)"(") and() via(via) its() program(程序) São(São) Paulo(保罗) Researchers(人员) in(in) International(国际) Collaboration(合作) (SPRINT)((SPRINT)) under(under) a(a) cooperation(合作) agreement(协议) with(with) the University(大学) of(of) North() Carolina(卡罗来纳) (UNC)((UNC)) at(at) Charlotte(夏洛特) in(in) the US.(US.)
The mitogenome() is() simpler(更简单) than(than) the nuclear() genome(基因组),(,) which(which) in(in) the case(情况) of(of) I.(I.) nocturnus(夜蛾) has() not(没有) yet() been(been) sequenced(测序),(,) Stampar(Stampar) explained(解释说).(.) The human(人类) nuclear() genome(基因组) comprises(包含) some(some) 3(3) billion(亿) base pairs(碱基对),(,) for example(例如).(.) Another(另一个) discovery(发现) reported(报道) in(in) the article(本文) is() that() I.(I.) nocturnus(nocturnus) and() Pachycerianthus(Pachycerianthus) magnus(magnus) ((()another(另一个) species(物种) studied(研究) by() Stampar(Stampar)'s('s) group(小组),(,) 77,828(77,828) base pairs(碱基对))()) have(具有) linear(线性) genomes(基因组) like() those(那些) of(of) medusae(水母体) ((()Medusozoa(Medusozoa)),(),) whereas() other(other) species(物种) in(in) their(它们) class() ((()Anthozoa(珊瑚虫))()) and() indeed(确实) most(大多数) animals(动物) have() circular(圆形) genomes(基因组).(.)
I.(I.) nocturnus(nocturnus) is(is) found(发现) in(in) the Atlantic(大西洋) from(from) the coast(海岸) of(of) Patagonia(巴塔哥尼亚) in(in) Argentina(阿根廷) as(as) far() north() as(as) the East() Coast(海岸) of(of) the US(美国) .(.) P.(P.) magnus(magnus) lives(生活) in(in) the marine environment(海洋环境) around(周围) the island() of(of) Taiwan(台湾) in(in) Asia(亚洲).(.) Both(两者) inhabit(居住) waters(水域) at(at) most() 15(15) m(m) deep().(.)
"I.("I.) nocturnus(nocturnus)'s('s) mitogenome(mitogenome) is() almost(几乎) five() times() the size(大小) of(of) the human(人类) mitogenome(),"(,") Stampar(Stampar) said().(.) "We("We) tend to(倾向于) think(认为) we're(we're) molecularly(分子) more(更加) complex(复杂),(,) but() actually(实际上) our(我们) genome(基因组) has(has) been(been) more() '(')filtered(过滤)'(') during(during) our(我们) evolution(进化).(.) Keeping(保持) this(这个) giant(巨大) genome(基因组) is(is) probably(可能) more() costly(成本) in(in) terms(方面) of(of) energy(能源) expenditure(消耗)."(.")
The shape(形状) of(of) the mitogenomes() in(in) these(它们) two(两种) species(种类) of(of) tube() anemone(海葵) and() the gene(基因) sequences(序列) they() contain(含有) were(were) more() surprising(令人惊讶) than(than) their(它们) size(大小).(.)
Because(因为) they(它们) are() closely(密切) related(相关) species(物种),(,) their(它们) gene(基因) sequences(序列) should(应该) be(be) similar(相似),(,) but(但是) I.(I.) nocturnus(nocturnus) has() five(5) chromosomes(染色体) while() P.(P.) magnus(magnus) has() eight(8),(,) and(并且) each(每个) has() a(a) different(不同) composition(组成) in(in) terms() of(of) genes(基因).(.) This kind(这种) of(of) variation(变异) had(had) previously(以前) been(been) found(发现) only() in(in) medusozoans(medusozoans),(,) sponges(海绵),(,) and() some(一些) crustaceans(甲壳类动物).(.)
"(")Humans(人类) and() bony() fish() species(种类) are(are) more() similar(相似) than(than) these() two(两种) tube() anemones(海葵) in terms of(依据) the structure(结构) of(of) their(它们) mitochondrial(线粒体) DNA,"(DNA,") Stampar(Stampar) said().(.)
São(São) Paulo(保罗) coast(海岸) and() South() China(中国) Sea()
To(To) arrive() at(at) these(这些) results(结果),(,) the researchers(研究人员) captured(捕获) specimens(标本) in(in) São(São) Sebasti(ã)ão,(ão,) which(which) lies(位于) on(on) the coast(海岸) of(of) São(São) Paulo(保罗) State() in(in) Brazil(巴西),(,) and(以及) off(off) Taiwan(台湾) in(in) the South() China(中国) Sea().(.) Small() pieces() of(of) the animals(动物)'(') tentacles(触须) were(were) used(用于) to(to) sequence(测序) their() mitogenomes(分裂).(.)
The genomes(基因组) of(of) the two(两个) species(物种) hitherto(迄今) available() from() databases(数据库) were(were) incomplete(不完整) owing to(由于) the difficulty() of(of) sequencing(测序) them(它们).(.) After(After) completing(完成) the study(研究),(,) the researchers(研究人员) published(发布) the genomes(基因组) by() gifting(馈赠) them() to(to) GenBan,(GenBan,) a(a) database(数据库) maintained(维护) in(in) the US(美国) by(by) the National(国家) Center(中心) for(for) Biotechnology(生物技术) Information(信息) (NCBI)((NCBI)) at(at) the National(国立) Institutes(研究院) of(of) Health(卫生) (NIH).((NIH).)
Another(另一个) obstacle(障碍) to(to) sequencing(测序) was() the difficulty() of(of) collecting(收集) these(这些) animals(动物) because of(由于) their() elusive(难以捉摸) behavior(行为).(.) In(In) response(应对) to(to) any(任何) potential(潜在) threat(威胁),(,) a(a) tube() anemone(海葵) hides(隐藏) in(in) the long() leathery(革质的) tube() that() distinguishes(区别) it() from(from) true(真正) sea anemones(海葵),(,) making(使) capture(捕获) impossible(不可能).(.)
"(")You() have to(必须) dig() a(一个) hole() around(周围) it,(it,) sometimes(有时) as(as) deep() as(as) a(a) meter(),(,) and() stop(阻止) up(up) the part(一部分) of(of) the tube(管子) buried() in(in) sand(沙子).(.) All(所有) this(这一) must(必须) be(be) done(done) under(under) water() while(虽然) carrying(携带) diving(潜水) gear(装备).(.) Otherwise(否则),(,) it() hides(隐藏) in(in) the buried() part(部分) of(of) the tube(管子) and() you() simply(根本) can(能够)'t('t) get(得到) hold(抓住) of(of) it,"(it,") Stampar(Stampar) said().(.)
Thanks() to(to) the support(支持) of(of) FAPESP's(FAPESP's) SPRINT(短跑) program(计划),(,) Stampar(Stampar) and() Marymegan(Marymegan) Daly(Daly),(,) a(a) research(研究) colleague(同事) at(at) Ohio(美国俄亥俄州) State(状态) University(大学) in(in) the US,(US,) established(建立) a(a) partnership(合作伙伴关系) with(with) Adam(亚当) Reitzel(Reitzel) and() Jason(贾森) Macrander(Macrander) at(at) UNC(UNC) Charlotte(夏洛特).(.) Macrander(Macrander),(,) then(当时) a(a) postdoctoral(博士后) researcher(研究员) under(under) Reitzel(Reitzel),(,) is() a(a) professor(教授) at(at) Florida(佛罗里达) Southern(南方) College(学院).(.)
Reitzel(Reitzel) and() Macrander(Macrander) specialize() in(in) the use(利用) of(of) bioinformatics(生物信息学) to(to) filter(过滤) genomics(基因组学) data(数据) and() assemble(组装) millions(百万) of(of) small() pieces() of(of) mitochondrial DNA(线粒体DNA) into(into) a(a) single(单一) sequence(序列).(.) They(他们) used(使用) this(这种) technique(技术) to(to) arrive() at(at) complete(完整) mitochondrial genomes(线粒体基因组) for(for) both(两种) species(物种).(.)
"In("In) this(这种) technique(技术),(,) you() sequence(排序) bits() of(of) the genome(基因组) and() link() them(它们) in(in) a(一个) circle(圆圈).(.) The problem(问题) is() that(that) this() only() works(适用) with(with) circular(循环) genomes(基因组).(.) Because(因为) we(我们) couldn()'t('t) find() a(a) piece(部分) to(to) close(关闭) the circle(圆圈),(,) we(我们) realized(意识到) the genome(基因组) had to(必须) be(be) linear(线性),(,) as(as) it() is() for(for) Medusozoa(Medusozoa),"(,") Stampar(Stampar) said().(.)
The discovery(发现) makes(进行了) way(方法) for(for) a(a) possible(可能) reclassification(重新分类) of(of) cnidarian(刺胞动物) species() ((()hydras(水螅),(,) medusae(水母体),(,) polyps(息肉),(,) corals(珊瑚) and() sea anemones(海葵)).().) The tube() anemones(海葵) studied(研究) appear(似乎) to(to) form(形成) a(一个) separate(独立) group(群体) from(from) corals(珊瑚) and() sea anemones(海葵) and() display(显示) some(一些) similarities(相似之处) to(to) medusae(水母).(.)
However(但是),(,) more(更多) data(数据) will(will) be(be) needed(需要) before(before) a(a) definitive(明确) conclusion(结论) can(能够) be(be) reached(达到).(.) The necessary(必要) data(数据) could(可能) come() from(from) the sequencing(测序) of(of) these(这些) species(物种)'(') nuclear() genomes(基因组),(,) which(which) Stampar(Stampar) and() his() group(小组) intend(打算) to(to) complete(完成) by(by) the end(年底) of(of) 2019.(2019.)

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