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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
纳米材料 107
A(一个) team(团队) at(at) Osaka(大阪) University(大学) has(has) created(创造) single()-()molecule(分子) nanowires(纳米线),(,) complete(包括) with() an(an) insulation(绝缘) layer(),(,) up(up) to(to) 10(10) nanometers(纳米) in(in) length().(.) When(When) they(它们) measured(测量) the electrical properties(电性能) of(of) these(这些) nanowires(纳米线),(,) the researchers(研究人员) found(发现) that(that) forcing(迫使) the ribbon(带状)-()like(like) chains() to(to) be(be) flat() significantly(显著) improved(提高了) their(他们) conductivity(导电性) compared(相比) with(with) a(a) twisted(扭曲) conformation(构造).(.) The findings(发现) may(可能) allow(允许) for(for) a(a) new() generation(产生) of(of) inexpensive(廉价) high()-()tech(高科技) devices(设备),(,) including(包括) smartphone(智能手机) screens(屏幕) and() photovoltaics(光伏).(.)
Carbon()-()based() polymers(聚合物),(,) which(which) are() long() molecular(分子) chains() made(made) of(of) repeating(重复) units(单元),(,) can() be(be) found(发现) everywhere(随处),(,) from() the rubber(橡胶) in(in) the soles(鞋底) of(of) your() shoes(鞋子) to(to) the proteins(蛋白质) that(that) make(make) up(up) your(你的) body(身体).(.) We(我们) used(曾经) to(to) think(认为) that(that) these(这些) molecules(分子) could(可能) not(不能) conduct() electricity(),(,) but() that(that) all(一切) changed(变化) with(with) the discovery(发现) of(of) conducting(导电) polymers(聚合物).(.) These(这些) are() a(a) small(微小) subset(部分) of(of) carbon()-()based() molecules(分子) that(that) can(可以) act(作用) like(一样) tiny() wires(线) owing to(由于) their(它们) alternating(交替) single() and() double() chemical bonds(化学键),(,) also() called(称为) conjugated bonds(共轭键).(.) Since(由于) carbon()-()based() conductors(导体) are(are) much(大大) easier(更容易) and() cheaper(更便宜) to(to) make(制造) and() customize(定制) than(than) conventional(传统) electronics(电子产品),(,) they(它们) have(have) seen(到了) rapid(迅速) adoption(采用) in(in) OLED(OLED) TVs,(TVs,) iPhone(iPhone) screens(屏幕),(,) and() solar panels(电池板),(,) while(同时) drastically(急剧) reducing(降低) their(它们) cost(成本).(.)
Now(现在),(,) researchers(研究人员) at(at) Osaka(大阪) University(大学) have(have) synthesized(合成了) chains() of(of) oligothiophene(低聚噻吩) of(of) various(各种) lengths(长度),(,) with(with) up(up) to(to) 24(24) repeat(重复) units(单元).(.) This() means(意味着) that(that) single(单根) nanowires(纳米线) could() be(be) up(up) to(to) 10(10) nanometers(纳米) in(in) length(长度).(.) Insulation(绝缘) of(of) the wires(导线) was(was) needed(需要) to(to) avoid(避免) interwire(导线间的) currents(电流),(,) so(so) that(that) the intrinsic conductivity(固有导电性) of(of) a(a) single(单个) molecule(分子) could(可以) be(be) measured(测量) accurately(精确地).(.) On the basis of(根据) the rules(规则) of(of) quantum mechanics(量子力学),(,) electrons(电子) in(in) molecules(分子) behave(行为) more() like() spread(扩散)-()out(out) waves() than(than) localized(局部) particles(粒子).(.) The overlapping(重叠) bonds() in(in) oligothiophene(低聚噻吩) allow(允许) electrons(电子) to(to) be(be) entirely(完全) spread(扩散) out(out) over(over) the polymer(聚合物) backbone(主链),(,) so(因此) they(它们) can(可以) easily(容易地) transverse() the molecule(分子) to(to) create(产生) an(an) electrical current(电流).(.)
This(这种) charge(电荷) transport(传输) can(可以) occur(发生) is(is) two(两种) very(非常) different(不同) ways(方式).(.) "(")Over(Over) short() distances(距离),(,) electrons(电子) rely(依靠) on(on) their(它们) wave(波浪)-()like(like) nature(性质) to(to) '(')tunnel(隧道)'(') directly(直接) through(通过) barriers(障碍物),(,) but(但是) over(over) long() distances(距离),(,) they(它们) hop() from() site(地点) to(to) site(地点) to(to) reach(到达) their(它们) destination(目的地),"(,") first(第一) author(作者) Dr(博士) .(.) Yutaka(Yutaka) Ie(Ie) explained(解释).(.) The team(小组) at(at) Osaka(大阪) University(大学) found(发现) that(that) changing() the oligothiophene(低聚噻吩) chain() from() twisted(扭曲) to(to) flat(扁平) led(led) to(to) much() greater(更大) overlap(重叠) of(of) the conjugated(共轭) backbone(骨架) of(of) oligothiophene(低聚噻吩),(,) which(which) in(in) turn(反过) meant(意味着) a(a) larger(更大) overall() conductivity(电导率).(.) As(As) a(a) result(结果),(,) the crossover(交叉) from() tunneling() to(to) hopping() conduction(传导) took(took) place(发生) with(with) flat(扁平) chains() at(at) shorter chain(短链) lengths(),(,) compared(相比) with(with) those(那些) with(with) the twisted(扭曲) conformation(构象).(.)
The researchers(研究人员) believe(认为) that(that) this(这项) work(工作) can(可以) open(打开) a(一个) whole() new(新的) world(世界) of(of) devices(设备).(.) "(")This(这项) study(研究) demonstrates(表明) that(that) our(我们) insulated(绝缘) nanowires(纳米线) have() the potential(可能) to(to) be(be) used(用于) in(in) novel(新型) "(")single()-()molecule(分子)'(') electronics(电子产品),"(,") lead(lead) author(作者) Dr(博士) .(.) Yoshio(Yoshio) Aso(Aso) said().(.) The work(工作) is(is) published(发表) in(in) the Journal() of(of) Physical Chemistry(物理化学) Letters(快报) as(as) "(")Highly(高度) Planar(平面) and() Completely(完全) Insulated(绝缘) Oligothiophenes(低聚噻吩):(:) Effects(影响) of(of) π-(π-)Conjugation(共轭) on(on) Hopping() Charge(电荷) Transport(传输)."(.")

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