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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
生态 54
A(A) new() paper(论文) in(in) The Condor(秃鹰):(:) Ornithological(鸟类学) Applications(应用),(,) published(出版) by(by) Oxford(牛津) University(大学) Press(),(,) finds(发现) that(that) some(一些) songbird(鸣禽) species(物种) benefit(受益) from(from) the spread(扩散) of(of) fracking(fracking) infrastructure(基础设施) while() others() decrease(减少) in(in) population(人口).(.)
The shale(页岩) gas() industry(行业) has(has) grown() rapidly(迅速) in(in) recent(近年) years() and() its() resulting(产生) infrastructure(基础设施) can(可能) have(have) negative(负面) consequences(影响) for(for) native(本土) wildlife(野生动物) communities(群落).(.) While(虽然) other(其他) studies(研究) have() documented(记录) negative(负面) impacts(影响) of(of) these(这些) developments(发展) on(on) birds(鸟类) and() their() habitats(栖息地),(,) few(few) have(have) described(描述) variability(变异性) among(among) species(物种) in(in) their(它们) spatial(空间) responses(反应) to(to) fracking(水力压裂).(.)
The Marcellus(Marcellus)-()Utica(尤蒂卡) Shale(页岩) region(地区),(,) which(which) lies(位于) beneath(beneath) the Appalachian(阿巴拉契亚) Mountains() and() holds(拥有) one(之一) of(of) the largest(最大) deposits(沉积) of(of) natural gas(天然气) in(in) North() America(美国),(,) is() a(a) major(主要) source(来源) of(of) gas(天然气) production(生产) in(in) the United States(美国).(.) Production(生产) has(has) led(led) to(to) more(更多) interstate(州际) and() gathering(集输) pipelines(管道),(,) access(通路) roads(道路),(,) and() other(其他) gas(天然气) infrastructure(基础设施) in(in) the region(地区).(.)
Researchers(研究人员) studied(研究了) the relationship(关系) between(between) 27(27) bird(鸟类) species() and() their(它们) distance(距离) from(from) shale(页岩) gas() construction(建设) in(in) northern(北部) West(西) Virginia(弗吉尼亚州),(,) from(from) 2008(2008) to(to) 2017.(2017.) They(他们) organized() the birds(鸟类) into(into) three() groups() based(根据) on(on) their(它们) relationship(关系) to(to) human development(人类发展) in(in) the region(地区).(.) The first(第一) category(),(,) forest(森林) interior(内部) birds(鸟类),(,) includes(包括) species(物种) like(like) the Ovenbird(Ovenbird) that(that) are() associated(相关) with(with) large() areas(面积) of(of) mature(成熟) forests(森林).(.) The second(第二) group(group) includes(包括) early(早期) successional(演替) birds(鸟类),(,) such as(例如) Indigo(靛蓝) Buntings(小树枝),(,) which(which) prefer(更喜欢) young(年轻) forest(森林) and() shrubland(灌木丛) habitats(栖息地).(.) The final(最后) category() is() human(人类)-()adapted(适应) birds(鸟类),(,) like() the Brown()-()headed() Cowbird(牛鹂),(,) which(which) thrive(茁壮成长) in(in) environments(环境) that(that) have(have) been(been) altered(改变) by(by) people(人们).(.)
The researchers(研究人员) recorded(记录) annual(年度) changes(变化) to(to) the landscape(景观) across(across) the study(研究) area(区域),(,) and() monitored(监测) birds(鸟类) at(at) 142(142) survey(测量) stations().(.) Over(Over) the ten()-()year() period(期间),(,) the footprint(足迹) of(of) shale(页岩) gas(天然气) increased(增加) tenfold(十倍),(,) from() approximately() 42(42) acres(英亩) in(in) 2008(2008) to(to) over(over) 432(432) acres(英亩) in(in) 2017,(2017,) with(with) an(an) even(even) greater(更多) increase(增加) in(in) new() forest(森林) edges(边缘) created() by(by) gas() infrastructure(基础设施).(.) The researchers(研究人员) found(发现) that(that) forest(森林) interior(内部) birds(鸟类) decreased(减少) in(in) numbers(数量) near() gas development(天然气开发),(,) avoiding(避免了) both(both) drilling(钻井) sites(现场) and() road(道路) and() pipeline(管道) corridors(走廊).(.) The Ovenbird(Ovenbird) population(种群) declined(下降) 35%(35%) at(at) the study(研究) site(地点) while() Cerulean(蔚蓝的) Warblers(),(,) a(a) forest(森林) species(物种) of(of) conservation(保护) concern(关注),(,) declined(下降) by(by) 34%.(34%.) These(这些) are() sharp declines(急剧下降) at(at) a(a) site(位点) previously(之前) recognized() as(as) a(a) globally(全球) Important(重要) Bird(鸟类) Area(地区) for(for) its() significant() populations(种群) of(of) Cerulean(蔚蓝的) Warblers() and() other(其他) forest(森林) interior(内陆) birds(鸟类).(.) Conversely(相反),(,) early(早期) successional(演替) species(物种) like() the Indigo(靛蓝) Bunting(彩旗) saw(看到) population(人口) increases(增加) and() began(开始) to(to) concentrate(集中) along(along) new(新的) pipelines(管道) and() access(接入) roads().(.) Similarly(同样),(,) the Brown()-()headed() Cowbird(牛鹂) showed(显示出) an(an) increase(增加) in(in) numbers(数量) throughout(throughout) the study(研究) site(地点),(,) but() displayed(显示) a(a) clear(明显) pattern(模式) of(of) attraction(吸引力) to(to) areas(区域) disturbed(干扰) by(by) fracking(压裂).(.)
This() suggests(表明) that(that) forest(森林) disturbances(干扰) from(from) shale(页岩) gas() energy development(能源开发) may(可能) create(创造) more(更多) habitats(栖息地) for(for) generalist(通才) or() highly() adaptable(适应性) species(物种) while(同时) pushing(推动) out(out) birds(鸟类) that(that) depend(依赖) on(on) interior(内陆) forests(森林).(.) For instance(例如),(,) the Brown()-()headed() Cowbird(牛羚) that() saw(看到) an(an) increased(增加) population(人口) in(in) this(这项) study(研究) is() a(一种) nest() parasite(寄生虫) that(that) manipulates(操纵) other() birds(鸟类) into(into) raising() its(它的) young(),(,) which(which) can(可能) be(be) detrimental(有害) to(to) the host(宿主).(.) The researchers(研究人员) also() noted(指出) that(that) shale(页岩) gas() expansion(扩张) meant(意味着) increased(增加) human(人类) access(进入) and() activity(活动),(,) including(包括) traffic(交通),(,) light(光照),(,) and() noise(噪音) pollution(污染),(,) which(which) poses(造成) problems(问题) for(for) birds(鸟类) that(that) rely(依赖) on(on) song(歌曲) to(to) attract(吸引) mates(配偶).(.) In particular(特别是),(,) pipeline(管道) compressors(压缩机) are() a(a) source(来源) of(of) chronic(慢性) noise(噪声) that(that) can(可以) carry(携带) into(into) surrounding(周围) habitats(栖息地),(,) exacerbating(加剧) the negative(负面) impacts(影响) of(of) habitat(栖息地) loss(丧失).(.)
"We("We) hope(希望) to(to) find(找到) a(一种) way(方法) to(to) balance(平衡) our(我们) energy(能源) needs(需求) with(with) maintaining(保持) healthy(健康) forest ecosystems(森林生态系统),(,) which(which) we(我们) also(同时) depend(依赖) on(on) for(for) clean air(清洁空气),(,) clean(清洁) water(),(,) carbon() storage(储存),(,) and() countless(无数) other(其他) ecological(生态系统) services(服务),"(,") said() author(作者) Laura(Laura) S.(S.) Farwell(Farwell),(,) Ph(博士) .(.) D.(D.) "(")Like(一样) the proverbial(众所周知) canary(金丝雀) in(in) the coal mine(煤矿),(,) these(这些) birds(鸟类) are() early(早期) indicators(指标) of(of) ecosystem(生态) degradation(退化).(.) We(我们) hope(希望) our(我们) research(研究) will() help(有助于) inform(提供信息) planning(规划) decisions(决策) about(about) where(where) to(to) avoid(避免) or() minimize(减少) gas development(天然气开发) in(in) order(order) to(to) protect(保护) valuable(宝贵) forest resources(森林资源),(,) both(both) for(for) humans(人类) and() for(for) other(其他) species(物种)."(.")

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