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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
环境 82
For(For) many(许多) people(),(,) climate change(气候变化) feels(感觉) like() a(a) distant(遥远) threat(威胁)()something(东西) that(that) happens(发生) far away(远远),(,) or() far off(在远方) in(in) the future(将来).(.) Scientists(科学家) and() climate(气候) communicators(传播者) often(经常) think(认为) that(that) if(如果) everyone(每个人) saw(saw) the devastating(破坏) impacts(影响) of(of) climate change(气候变化),(,) we'd(we'd) all() be(be) more() likely(可能) to(to) accept(接受) it() as(as) real(真实),(,) and() that(that) accepting(接受) climate(气候) science(科学) is(is) essential(必要) to(to) taking(采取) action(行动) against(反对) it.(it.) A(A) recent(最近) study(研究),(,) published(发表) in(in) Regional(区域) Environmental Change(环境变化),(,) challenges(挑战) the latter() part(部分) of(of) this(这一) assumption(假设).(.)
The study(研究) examined(考察) decision-making(决策) in(in) three places(三位) affected(影响) by(by) melting(融化) glaciers(冰川).(.) For(For) these(这些) communities(社区) in(in) the Italian(意大利) Alps(阿尔卑斯山),(,) the Peruvian(秘鲁) Andes(安第斯山脉),(,) and() the U(U) .(.) S.'s(S.'s) North(北部) Cascades(瀑布),(,) glacier(冰川) retreat(退) is(is) a(a) visible(visible) fact(事实)—"(—")and() the causes(原因) of(of) glacier(冰川) retreat(退) are(are) almost(几乎) exclusively(专门) warming(变暖),"(,") explains(解释说) lead(领导) author(作者) Ben(Ben) Orlove(Orlove),(,) an(一个) anthropologist(人类学家) and() co-(共同)director(主任) of(of) the Center(中心) for(for) Research(研究) on(on) Environmental(环境) Decisions(决策) at(at) Columbia(哥伦比亚) University(大学)'s('s) Earth(地球) Institute().(.)
Orlove(Orlove) and() his() colleagues(同事) wondered(想知道) whether(是否) the people() who(who) live(生活) in(in) the three(三个) locales(场所) notice(注意到) these(这些) changes(变化),(,) whether(是否) they(他们) understand(理解) them(他们) to(to) be(be) the result(结果) of(of) climate change(气候变化),(,) and() whether(是否) this(这种) climate(气候) connection(联系) motivates(激励) them(它们) to(to) take(采取) action(行动).(.)
They(他们) found(发现) that(that) people() in(in) these(这些) villages(村庄) are(are) indeed(确实) aware(意识) of(of) climate change(气候变化) and() are(are) even(甚至) taking(采取) action(行动) to(to) adapt(适应) to(to) it.(it.) But() the villagers(村民们) don(don)'t('t) often(经常) talk(谈话) about(about) climate change(气候变化) as(as) a(a) motivation(动力) for(for) adapting(适应).(.) Instead()()they(他们)'re('re) more() likely(可能) to(to) look(寻找) closer(更接近) to(to) home(家庭) for(for) reasons(原因) to(to) respond(应对) to(to) the changing(变化) environment(环境),(,) focusing(聚焦) on(on) how(如何) the responses(应对) can() benefit(受益) their(它们) communities(社区).(.) The study(研究) suggests(提出) one(一种) potential(可能) way(方法) to(to) reframe(重新框架) the conversation(对话) around(围绕) climate(气候) adaptation(适应) and() make(使) it() more() appealing(吸引).(.)
Exploring(探索) different(不同) frames(框架) of(of) mind(心灵)
Orlove(Orlove)'s('s) team(团队) looked at(研究) the frames(框架) of(of) thinking(思维) that(that) mountain(山地)-()dwellers(居民) use() to(to) understand(理解) the changes(变化) happening(发生) around(周围) them(他们).(.) Mental(心理) "(")frames(框架)"(") help(帮助) us(我们) sort(分类) new() information(信息) and() reconcile(调和) it() with(with) our(我们) previous(以前) knowledge(知识) and() beliefs(信念).(.) For example(例如),(,) says() Orlove(Orlove),(,) "If("If) a(a) hydropower(hydropower) plant(电厂) in(in) the Italian(意大利) Alps(阿尔卑斯山) doesn(doesn)'t('t) get(得到) enough(足够) water() to(to) generate(生成) electricity(),(,) what(what) kinds(种类) of(of) associations(联想) do(do) the villagers(村民) make(做出) when(when) they(它们) think(思考) or() talk(谈论) about(about) these(这些) changes(变化)?"(?")
The team(团队) examined(研究) how(如何) mountain(山地)-()dwellers(居民) utilized(使用) two(两个) frames(框架) when(when) talking() about(about) glacial(冰川) retreat(退).(.) The first(第一个) was(was) a(a) climate change(气候变化) frame(框架) that(that) focuses(重点) on(on) global(全球) changes(变化) and() the need(需求) for(for) global(全球) solutions(解决方案).(.) The second(第二) was(was) a(a) community(社区) frame(框架) emphasizing(强调) action(行动) at(at) a(a) local(地方) level(层面) and() recognizing(认识到) positive(积极) opportunities(机会) for(for) local(地方) advancement(进步),(,) in addition to(除了) the negative(负面) challenges(挑战) of(of) environmental change(环境变化).(.)
By(By) analyzing(分析) peoples(人们)'(') speech patterns(语言模式) during(during) in-(in-)depth interviews(深度面试),(,) focus(焦点) groups(小组),(,) and() in(in) records(记录) of(of) community(社区) meetings(会议),(,) the researchers(研究人员) investigated(调查) how(如何) often(通常) people(人们) in(in) the mountain(山区) communities(社区) used(使用) these() two(两个) frames(框架) when(when) talking() about(about) the impacts(影响) of(of) climate change(气候变化).(.)
Different(不同) regions(地区),(,) different(不同) challenges(挑战),(,) similar(类似) framing(框架)
The study(研究) found(发现) that(that) villages(村庄) in(in) all(所有) three(三个) research(研究) sites(地点) are(are) undertaking(承诺) actions(行动) that(that) could(可以) be(be) described(描述) as(as) adaptations(适应) to(to) climate change(气候变化).(.) However(然而),(,) the communities(社区) themselves(本身) don(don)'t('t) always(总是) think(思考) of(of) their(他们) actions(行为) that(that) way(方式).(.) The authors(作者) present(提出) three(三项) cast(铸造) studies(研究).(.)
Tourism(旅游) in(in) the North() Cascades(瀑布)
Glaciers(冰川),(,) rivers(河流),(,) lakes(湖泊),(,) and() snowpack(积雪) draw(吸引) tourists(游客) to(to) the slopes(斜坡) of(of) Mount() Baker(贝克) in(in) Washington(华盛顿) State(),(,) providing(提供) the major(主要) source(来源) of(of) income(收入) for(for) the towns(城镇) of(of) Concrete(混凝土) and() Glacier(冰川).(.) But() those(那些) natural resources(自然资源) are(are) at(at) risk(风险) as(as) the planet(地球)'s('s) temperature(温度) climbs(攀登).(.)
Orlove(Orlove)'s('s) team(团队) argues(辩称) that(that) these(这些) communities(社区) in(in) the North() Cascades(级联) are(are) adapting(适应) to(to) glacial(冰川) retreat(退) by(by) finding(寻找) ways(方法) to(to) expand(扩展) other(其他) forms(形式) of(of) tourism(旅游).(.) One(一个) example(例子) is(is) through(通过) festivals(节日) that(that) celebrate(庆祝) historical(历史) heritage(遗产) and() wildlife(野生动物),(,) and() help(帮助) to(to) bring(带来) the community(社区) together(一起).(.)
However(然而),(,) Concrete(混凝土) and() Glacier(冰川) residents(居民) rarely(很少) used(使用) words(词汇) associated(相关) with(with) the climate change(气候变化) frame(框架) when(when) describing(描述) the changes(变化) or() the local response(局部反应).(.) Instead(),(,) they(他们) use(使用) a(a) community(社区) frame(框架),(,) emphasizing(强调) the importance(重要性) of(of) bolstering(支护) tourism(旅游业) and() supporting(支持) livelihoods(生计) and() the next(下一代) generation(生成).(.)
"(")These(这些) kids(孩子) who(who) get out(逃避) of(of) high() school(学校),(,) there(那里)'s('s) not() much(许多) for(for) them(他们) to(to) do(do) except(除了) go(go) out of(out of) town() and() find() a(a) job(工作) in(in) [([)the nearby(附近) town() of](of]) Mount() Vernon(Vernon) or() Seattle(西雅图),"(,") said() one(一个) interviewee(受访者).(.) "(")Some(一些) of(of) them(他们) of course(当然) go(go) to(to) college(大学),(,) but() probably(可能) the majority(大多数) of(of) them(他们) don(don)'t('t) .(.) So(所以) there()'s('s) no(没有) real(真正) way(方法) to(to) make(make) a(a) livelihood() up(up) here(这里).(.) We're(We're) dependent(依赖) on(on) tourism(旅游业)."(.")
Hydropower(Hydropower) in(in) the Italian(意大利) Alps(阿尔卑斯山)
As(As) glaciers(冰川) in(in) the Italian(意大利) Alps(阿尔卑斯山) shrink(缩小),(,) river(河流) levels(水位) are(are) declining(下降),(,) reducing(降低) the ability(能力) of(of) hydropower(hydropower) plants(植物) to(to) generate(生成) electricity().(.) To(To) keep(保持) up(up) with(with) demand(需求),(,) the villages(村庄) of(of) Trafoi(Trafoi),(,) Stilfs(Stilfs),(,) and() Sulden(Sulden) have(have) installed(安装) biomass(生物质) generators(发电机) that(that) burn(燃烧) wood chips(木屑) to(to) generate(生成) electricity(),(,) and() the extra(额外) heat(热量) gets() piped(管道) into(into) homes().(.)
The researchers(研究人员) found(发现) that(that) although(尽管) residents(居民) sometimes(有时) describe(描述) the wood chips(木屑) as(as) a(a) renewable resource(可更新资源)—a(—a) term(术语) from(from) the climate change(气候变化) frame(框架)()they(他们)'re('re) more(更多) often(通常) to(to) rely(依赖) on(on) the community(社区) frame(框架).(.) Many(许多) villagers(村民) mentioned(提到) liking(喜欢) the wood(木材) heat(热量) for(for) its(它的) coziness(舒适感),(,) and() emphasized(强调) that(that) that(that) the wood chips(木屑) are(are) a(a) local(当地) resource(资源) that(that) supports(支持) local(当地) independence(独立性).(.) Others(其他) mentioned(提到) the next(下一代) generation(生成),(,) noting(注意到) that(that) the wood chip(木屑) industry(行业) provides(提供) local(地方) jobs(工作) and() that(that) the pipes(管道) have(have) provided(提供) conduits(管道) to(to) install(安装) fiber optic(光学纤维) cables(电缆);(;) both(both) of(of) these(这些) encourage(鼓励) younger(年轻) people() to(to) stay() in(in) their(他们) communities(社区) rather than(而不) seeking(寻求) a(a) future(未来) elsewhere(其他地方).(.)
Water() in(in) the Peruvian(秘鲁) Andes(安第斯山脉)
The village() of(of) Copa(Copa) in(in) the Peruvian(秘鲁) Andes(安第斯山脉) is(is) also() watching(观看) its() water supply(供水) fall(下降).(.) Meanwhile(与此同时),(,) its(它的) need(需求) for(for) water() has(has) only() increased(增加),(,) as(as) warmer(回暖) temperatures(温度) and() irregular(不规则) rainfall(降雨) make(使) crop(作物) irrigation(灌溉) more(更加) important(重要).(.)
To(To) adapt(适应) to(to) these(这些) changes(变化),(,) Copa(Copa) has(has) upgraded(升级) its() water() infrastructure(基础设施) to(to) reduce(减少) water leakage(漏水).(.) It() is(is) using(使用) concrete(混凝土) to(to) line() the canals(运河) that(that) carry() water() from(from) the river(),(,) and() building(建造) pipe systems(管道系统) to(to) bring(带来) water() into(into) homes() instead of(而不是) hauling(拖运) buckets(水桶) from(from) the canal(运河).(.) As(As) with(with) the previous() examples(例子),(,) these(这些) developments(发展) are(are) most() often() seen() through(通过) a(a) community(社区) frame(框架),(,) with(with) a(a) focus(重点) on(on) how(如何) the modern(现代) water system(水系) earns(赢得) recognition(识别) for(for) the village(村庄).(.) "(")They(他们) speak(说话) with(with) pride(自豪) of(of) the village(乡村) square(广场),"(,") says() Orlove(Orlove),(,) "(")with(with) piped(管道) water() giving() it() a(a) more(更加) urban(都市) look(寻找)."(.")
By(By) the numbers(数字)
Using(利用) both(both) human(人类) judgment(判断) and() computer(计算机) keyword(关键词) analysis(分析),(,) Orlove(Orlove) and() his() team(团队) analyzed(分析了) how(如何) often(通常) people(人们) in(in) these(这些) communities(社区) referred(提到) to(to) environmental changes(环境变化),(,) whether(是否) they(他们) attributed(归因) these(这些) changes(变化) to(to) climate change(气候变化),(,) and() whether(是否) they(他们) described(描述) their(它们) activities(活动) as(as) adaptive responses(适应响应) to(to) the ongoing(进行) changes(变化).(.)
They(他们) found(发现) that(that) the villagers(村民) frequently(经常) talk(谈论) about(about) climate change(气候变化) impacts(影响).(.) In(In) interviews(访谈),(,) focus(焦点) groups(小组),(,) and() community(社区) meetings(会议),(,) changes(变化) in(in) ice(),(,) water(),(,) socioeconomic(社会经济) changes(变化),(,) weather(天气),(,) and() agriculture(农业) come(产生) up(up) in(in) about(about) 13(13) percent() of(of) conversation(谈话) turns() ((()defined(定义) as(as) the words() that(that) one(一个) person() speaks(说话) without(没有) interruption(中断)).().) "In("In) other(其他) words(),"(,") the paper(论文) notes(笔记),(,) "(")they(他们) do(do) not() find(发现) climate change(气候变化) hard() to(to) see(看到)."(.")
However(然而),(,) people(人们) linked(联系) these(这些) alterations(变化) to(to) climate change(气候变化) in(in) only(只有) 4(4) percent() of(of) the conversation(对话) turns(),(,) and() they(他们) describe(描述) their(它们) actions(行为) as(as) adaptive responses(适应响应) in(in) only(只有) 5(5) percent() of(of) conversation(对话) turns().(.) Overall(总体),(,) people(人们) were(were) five() times() more(更多) likely(可能) to(to) refer(参考) to(to) the community(社区) frame(框架) than(than) the climate change(气候变化) frame(框架) (4.83((4.83) percent() versus() 0.93(0.93) percent()).().)
Reframing(重构) the conversation(对话)
In(In) each(每个) of(of) the case studies(个案研究),(,) communities(社区) see(看到) the effects(影响) of(of) climate change(气候变化) and() take(采取) steps() to(to) address(解决) the impacts(影响).(.) Yet(然而) they(他们) do(do) all(所有) of(of) this() without(没有) making(制造) much(许多) use(利用) of(of) climate change(气候变化) terminology(术语).(.) While(虽然) the villagers(村民们) believe(相信) in(in) climate change(气候变化) and(并且) do(do) occasionally(偶尔) bring(带来) it() up(up) in(in) conversation(谈话),(,) the community(社区) is(is) more(更为) relevant(相关) for(for) them(他们).(.)
To(To) Orlove(Orlove) and() his() colleagues(同事),(,) this() challenges(挑战) the notion(观念) that(that) people(人们) need(需要) to(to) '(')believe(相信

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