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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
地球科学 5318
Radioactive carbon(放射性碳) released(释放) into(into) the atmosphere(大气) from(from) 20th-(20th-)century(世纪) nuclear bomb(核弹) tests(试验) has(has) reached(到达) the deepest parts(深部) of(of) the ocean(海洋),(,) new() research(研究) finds(发现).(.)
A(A) new() study(研究) in(in) AGU's(AGU's) journal(期刊) Geophysical(地球物理) Research(研究) Letters(快报) finds(发现) the first(第一个) evidence(证据) of(of) radioactive carbon(放射性碳) from(from) nuclear bomb(核弹) tests(试验) in(in) muscle tissues(肌组织) of(of) crustaceans(甲壳类动物) that(that) inhabit(栖息) Earth(地球)'s('s) ocean trenches(海沟),(,) including(包括) the Mariana Trench(马里亚纳海沟),(,) home() to(to) the deepest(最深处) spot(斑点) in(in) the ocean(海洋).(.)
Organisms(生物) at(at) the ocean surface(海洋表面) have() incorporated(结合) this(这种) "(")bomb(炸弹) carbon()"(") into() the molecules(分子) that(that) make(make) up(up) their() bodies() since() the late(后期) 1950s.(1950s.) The new(新的) study(研究) finds(发现) crustaceans(甲壳类动物) in(in) deep ocean(深海) trenches() are(are) feeding() on(on) organic matter(有机物质) from() these(these) organisms(生物体) when(when) it(it) falls() to(to) the ocean floor(海底).(.) The results(结果) show(表明) human pollution(人体污染) can(可以) quickly(快速) enter(进入) the food web(食物网) and() make(make) its(its) way(方法) to(to) the deep ocean(深海),(,) according to(按照) the study(研究)'s('s) authors(作者).(.)
"(")Although(尽管) the oceanic(海洋) circulation(环流) takes(需要) hundreds(数百) of(of) years() to(to) bring() water() containing(含有) bomb(炸弹) [([)carbon()](]) to(to) the deepest(最深) trench(),(,) the food chain(食物链) achieves(实现) this(this) much() faster(),"(,") said(表示) Ning(Ning) Wang(),(,) a(a) geochemist(地球化学家) at(at) the Chinese(中国) Academy(科学院) of(of) Sciences(作者) in(in) Guangzhou(广州),(,) China(中国),(,) and(and) lead(领导) author(作者) of(of) the new() study(研究).(.)
"(")There(存在)'s('s) a(a) very(非常) strong interaction(强相互作用) between(between) the surface(表面) and() the bottom(底部),(,) in terms of(依据) biologic(生物) systems(系统),(,) and() human(人类) activities(活动) can(可能) affect(影响到) the biosystems(生物系统) even(甚至) down(down) to(to) 11,000(11,000) meters(),(,) so(所以) we(我们) need(需要) to(to) be(be) careful(仔细) about(about) our(我们) future(未来) behaviors(行为),"(,") said() Weidong(Weidong) Sun(),(,) a(a) geochemist(地球化学家) at(at) the Chinese(中国) Academy(科学院) of(of) Sciences(科学) in(in) Qingdao(青岛),(,) China(中国),(,) and(and) co-(共同)author(作者) of(of) the new() study(研究).(.) "It's("It's) not(不是) expected(预期),(,) but() it's(it's) understandable(可以理解),(,) because(因为) it's(it's) controlled(控制) by(by) the food chain(食物链).(.) "(")
The results(结果) also(还有) help() scientists(科学家们) better(更好地) understand(了解) how(how) creatures(生物) have(have) adapted(适应) to(to) living(生活) in(in) the nutrient(养分)-()poor(贫乏) environment(环境) of(of) the deep ocean(深海),(,) according to(按照) the authors(作者).(.) The crustaceans(甲壳类动物) they(他们) studied(研究) live(生活) for(for) an(an) unexpectedly(出乎意料) long time(持久) by(by) having() extremely() slow(缓慢) metabolisms(代谢),(,) which(which) the authors(作者) suspect(怀疑) may(可能) be(be) an(an) adaptation(适应) to(to) living(生活) in(in) this(这种) impoverished(贫困) and() harsh(恶劣) environment(环境).(.)
Creating(产生) radioactive particles(放射性微粒)
Carbon()-14(-14) is(is) radioactive carbon(放射性碳) that(that) is(is) created(产生) naturally(自然) when(when) cosmic rays(宇宙射线) interact(相互作用) with(with) nitrogen() in(in) the atmosphere(大气).(.) Carbon()-14(-14) is(is) much less(何况) abundant(丰富) than() non()-()radioactive carbon(放射性碳),(,) but() scientists(科学家们) can(可以) detect(检测) it() in(in) nearly(几乎) all(所有) living(活的) organisms(生物体) and() use() it() to(to) determine(确定) the ages(年龄) of(of) archeological(考古) and(and) geological samples(地质样品).(.)
Thermonuclear weapons(热核武器) tests(试验) conducted(进行) during(during) the 1950s(1950s) and() 1960s(1960s) doubled(增加了一倍) the amount() of(of) carbon()-14(-14) in(in) the atmosphere(大气) when(when) neutrons(中子) released(释放) from() the bombs(炸弹) reacted(反应) with(with) nitrogen(氮气) in(in) the air(空气).(.) Levels(水平) of(of) this(这种) "(")bomb(炸弹) carbon()"(") peaked(达到顶峰) in(in) the mid(中期)-1960s(-1960s) and(and) then(然后) dropped(下降) when(when) atmospheric nuclear tests(大气层核试验) stopped(停止).(.) By(By) the 1990s,(1990s,) carbon()-14(-14) levels(水平) in(in) the atmosphere(大气) had(had) dropped(降至) to(to) about(about) 20(20) percent() above(以上) their() pre()-()test levels(校核水准).(.)
This(这种) bomb(炸弹) carbon() quickly(迅速) fell out(发生) of(of) the atmosphere(大气) and() mixed() into() the ocean surface(海洋表面).(.) Marine organisms(海洋有机物) that(that) have(have) lived(生活) in(in) the decades(几十年) since() this() time(时间) have(已经) used(使用) bomb(炸弹) carbon() to(to) build(构建) molecules(分子) within(within) their(their) cells(细胞),(,) and(and) scientists(科学家们) have(have) seen(看到) elevated(升高) levels(水平) of(of) carbon()-14(-14) in(in) marine organisms(海洋有机物) since() shortly(不久) after(after) the bomb tests(氧弹试验) began(开始).(.)
Life(生活) at() the bottom(海底) of(of) the sea()
The deepest parts(深部) of(of) the ocean(海洋) are(are) the hadal(hadal) trenches(),(,) those(those) areas(区域) where(where) the ocean floor(海底) is(is) more(以上) than(than) 6(6) kilometers(公里) (4((4) miles(英里))()) below(below) the surface(地表).(.) These(These) areas(区域) form(形成) when(when) one(一个) tectonic plate(构造板块) subducts(俯冲) beneath() another(另一个).(.) Creatures(生物) that(that) inhabit(栖息) these(these) trenches(战壕) have(have) had(had) to(to) adapt(适应) to(to) the intense(强烈) pressures(压力),(,) extreme(极度) cold(寒冷),(,) and() lack(缺乏) of(of) light(光线) and(and) nutrients(营养).(.)
In(In) the new() study(研究),(,) researchers(研究人员) wanted to(想要) use(使用) bomb(炸弹) carbon() as(作为) a(a) tracer(示踪剂) for(for) organic material(有机物质) in(in) hadal(hadal) trenches() to(to) better(更好地) understand(了解) the organisms(生物) that(that) live(生活) there(那里).(.) Wang() and() her() colleagues(同事) analyzed(分析了) amphipods(片脚类动物) collected(收集) in(in) 2017(2017) from() the Mariana(Mariana),(,) Mussau(Mussau),(,) and() New Britain(新不列颠厂) Trenches(沟槽) in(in) the tropical(热带) West(西) Pacific Ocean(太平洋),(,) as(as) far() down(down) as(as) 11(11) kilometers(公里) (7((7) miles(英里))()) below(below) the surface(地表).(.) Amphipods(片脚类动物) are(are) a(a) type() of(of) small() crustacean(甲壳类) that(that) live(生活) in(in) the ocean(海洋) and(and) get() food(食物) from() scavenging(清除) dead(死亡) organisms(生物) or() consuming(消耗) marine detritus(海洋碎屑).(.)
Surprisingly(),(,) the researchers(研究人员) found(发现) carbon()-14(-14) levels(水平) in(in) the amphipods(片脚类动物)'(') muscle tissues(肌组织) were(were) much() greater() than() levels(水平) of(of) carbon()-14(-14) in(in) organic matter(有机物质) found(found) in(in) deep ocean(深海) water().(.) They(他们) then(然后) analyzed(分析了) the amphipods(片脚类动物)'(') gut(肠道) contents(内容) and(and) found(发现) those(这些) levels(水平) matched(匹配) estimated(估计) carbon()-14(-14) levels(水平) from() samples(样本) of(of) organic material(有机物质) taken() from(from) the surface(表面) of(of) the Pacific Ocean(太平洋).(.) This() suggests(表明) the amphipods(片脚类动物) are(are) selectively(选择性地) feeding(馈送) on(on) detritus(碎屑) from() the ocean surface(海洋表面) that(that) falls() to(to) the ocean floor(海底).(.)
Adapting(适应) to(to) the deep ocean(深海) environment(环境)
The new() findings(发现) allow(使) researchers(研究人员) to(to) better(更好地) understand(了解) the longevity(寿命) of(of) organisms(生物) that(that) inhabit(栖息) hadal(hadal) trenches(壕沟) and(and) how(how) they(它们) have(have) adapted(适应) to(to) this(这种) unique(独特) environment(环境).(.)
Interestingly(有趣的是),(,) the researchers(研究人员) found(发现) the amphipods(片脚类动物) living(生活) in(in) these(these) trenches(战壕) grow() larger(更大) and(and) live longer(延长生命) than() their(their) counterparts(对应) in(in) shallower waters(浅水).(.) Amphipods(片脚类动物) that(that) live(生活) in(in) shallow water(浅水) typically(通常) live() for(for) less() than(than) two() years() and() grow() to(to) an(an) average length(平均长度) of(of) 20(20) millimeters(毫米) (0.8((0.8) inches(英寸)).().) But() the researchers(研究人员) found(发现) amphipods(片脚类动物) in(in) the deep() trenches(战壕) that(that) were(were) more() than(than) 10(10) years old(年龄) and(and) had(had) grown(生长) to(to) 91(91) millimeters(毫米) (3.6((3.6) inches(英寸))()) long().(.)
The study(研究) au(au)

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