智科眼

请选择以下任意方式登录

已有帐号?

验证码登录

微信登录

忘记密码
未收到验证码?
注册

微信注册

智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
工程 11
Last week(上周)'s('s) massive(大规模) southern(南部) California(加利福尼亚) earthquakes(地震) shut(关闭) down(down) Ridgecrest(里奇) Regional(地区) Hospital(医院) throughout(throughout) the July(7月) 4(4) holiday(假期) weekend(周末) while(while) the tiny() town() of(of) Ridgecrest(里奇克莱斯特) assessed(评估) the damages(损失).(.) A(A) new(新型) optical() sensor(传感器) developed(开发) at(at) Lawrence(劳伦斯) Berkeley(伯克利) National(国家) Laboratory(实验室) ((()Berkeley(伯克利) Lab(实验室))()) could(可以) speed() up(up) the time(时间) it(it) takes() to(to) evaluate(评估) whether(whether) critical(关键) buildings(建筑) like(like) these(这些) are(are) safe(安全) to(to) occupy() shortly(不久) after(after) a(a) major(重要) earthquake(地震).(.)
The technology(技术)()which(which) autonomously(自动) captures(捕获) and() transmits(传输) data(数据) depicting(描绘) the relative(相对) displacement(位移) between(between) two(两个) adjacent(相邻) stories() of(of) a(a) shaking() building(建筑物)—is(—is) able(能够) to(to) provide(提供) reliable(可靠) information(信息) about(有关) building(建筑物) damage(损坏) immediately(立即) following(以下) an(an) earthquake(地震),(,) and() could() expedite(加快) efforts(努力) to(to) safely(安全) assess(评估),(,) repair(修复),(,) and() reoccupy(再用) buildings(建筑物) post()-()quake(震动).(.)
Scientists(科学家) and() engineers(工程师) at(at) Berkeley(伯克利) Lab(实验室),(,) Lawrence(劳伦斯) Livermore(利弗莫尔) National(国家) Laboratory(实验室),(,) and() the University(大学) of(of) Nevada(内华达)-()Reno(里诺) began(开始) working(致力) to(to) design(设计) an(一种) optical() method(方法) of(of) measuring(测量) interstory(层间) drift(漂移) within(within) buildings(建筑物) in(in) 2015.(2015.) After(After) four() years() of(of) extensive(广泛) peer(同行)-()reviewed(评审) research(研究) and() simulative(模拟) testing(测试) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Nevada(内华达)'s('s) Earthquake Engineering(地震工程) Laboratory(实验室),(,) the Discrete(离散) Diode(二极管) Position(位置) Sensor(传感器) (DDPS)((DDPS)) will() be() deployed(部署) for the first time(首次) this(这个) summer(夏天) in(in) a(a) multi()-()story() building(建筑) at(at) Berkeley(伯克利) Lab(实验室)()which(which) sits() adjacent(附近) to(to) the Hayward(Hayward) Fault(断层),(,) considered(认为) one(one) of(of) the most() dangerous(危险) faults(断层) in(in) the United States(美国).(.)
"(")Until now(到目前为止),(,) there()'s('s) been(been) no(no) way(办法) to(to) accurately(准确) and() directly(直接地) measure(测量) drift(漂移) between(between) building(建筑物) stories(故事),(,) which(which) is() a(a) key(关键) parameter(参数) for(for) assessing(评估) earthquake(地震) demand(需求) in(in) a(a) building(建筑物),"(,") said() David(大卫) McCallen,(McCallen,) a(a) senior(高级) scientist(科学家) in(in) the Energy(能源) Geosciences(地球科学) Division(分割) at(at) Berkeley(伯克利) Lab(实验室) and() faculty() member(成员) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Nevada(内华达),(,) who(who) leads(领导) the research(研究) collaboration(合作).(.)
The debut(首次亮相) of(of) DDPS(DDPS) comes() as(as) governments(政府) at(at) every() level() make(make) post()-()earthquake() building(建筑) inspection(检查) and() reoccupation(再占领) a(a) central(核心) focus(焦点) of(of) response(响应) planning(规划),(,) and(并且) as(as) the highly() anticipated(期待) next(下一代) generation(生成) of(of) remote(远程) connectivity(连接)—5G—(—5G—)becomes(成为) reality(现实) for(for) rapid(快速) data transmission(数据传输).(.) "We("We) are(are) excited(很高兴) that(that) this(这种) sensor(传感器) technology(技术) is(is) now(现在) ready(准备) for(for) field(现场) trials(试验),(,) at(at) a(a) time(time) when(when) post()-()earthquake(地震) response(应对) strategies(策略) have(have) evolved(发展) to(to) prioritize(优先考虑) safe(安全),(,) continued(持续) building(建筑) functionality(功能) and() re-(re-)occupancy(占用) in addition to(除了) '(')life(生命) safety(安全),'"(,'") McCallen(McCallen) said(表示).(.)
Optics(光学) makes() a(a) difference(发挥) in(in) monitoring(监测) seismic(地震) structural(结构) health(健康)
Measuring(测量) building(建筑物) interstory(层间) drift(漂移) has(has) been(been) a(一个) factor(因素) in(in) assessing(评估) buildings(建筑物) for(for) post()-()earthquake() damage(损坏) for(for) some(some) time(时间),(,) yet() finding(找到) a(一种) reliable(可行) method(方法) to(to) do(do) so(so) has(has) been(been) fraught(充满) with(with) challenges(挑战).(.) Traditionally(传统上),(,) engineers(工程师) mounted(安装) strong(强震) motion(震动) earthquake(地震) accelerometers(加速度计) at(at) select() elevations(高度) to(to) secure(确保) data(数据) on(on) the back(back)-()and()-()forth(出来) and() side(侧面) to(to) side force(侧向力) imposed(施加) on(on) a(a) shaking(摇动) building(建筑物).(.) But(但是) processing(处理) the acceleration(加速度) data(数据) from(from) these(这些) instruments(仪器) to(to) obtain(获得) building(建筑物) drift(漂移) displacements(位移) is() very(非常) challenging(具有挑战性) due to(由于) the frequency(频率) limitations(限制) of(of) the sensors(传感器),(,) especially(尤其) when(when) buildings(建筑物) have(have) sustained(遭受) permanent(永久) displacements(位移) associated(相关) with(with) damage(损坏).(.) Even(Even) more(更加) difficult(困难) is() receiving(接收) data(数据) quickly() enough(足够) to(to) inform(提供) decision-making(决策) on(on) continuity of operations(操作连续性) and() occupant(乘员) safety(安全).(.) In addition(此外),(,) because(由于) typical(典型) building(建筑物) accelerometer(加速度计)-()based(基于) instrumentation(仪器) can(可能) be(be) quite(非常) costly(昂贵),(,) systems(系统) tend to(倾向于) be(be) very(非常) sparse(稀疏) with(with) accelerometers(加速度计) on(on) relatively(相对较) few(few) buildings(建筑物).(.)
DDPS(DDPS) leverages(利用) a(一种) promising(有前途) new() alternative(替代方案) for(for) directly(直接) measuring(测量) building(建筑物) interstory(interstory) drift(漂移) that(that) combines(结合) laser beams(激光束) with(with) optical() sensors(传感器).(.) This(这个) technique(技术) centers(中心) around(围绕) projecting(投射) laser(激光) light(光线) across(across) a(a) story() height(高度) to(to) sense() the position(位置) at(at) which(which) the light() strikes(攻击) a(a) detector(探测器) located(位于) on(on) the adjacent(相邻) building(建筑物) floor(楼层) to(to) directly(直接) measure(测量) structural(结构) drift(漂移).(.) The tool(工具) developed(开发) at(at) Berkeley(伯克利) Lab(实验室) relies(依赖) on(on) utilizing(利用) a(a) laser(激光) source() and() position(位置) sensitive(敏感) detector(探测器).(.) Making(Making) use(利用) of(of) a(a) geometric(几何) array(阵列) of(of) small(),(,) inexpensive(便宜) light()-()sensitive() photodiodes(光电二极管),(,) the sensor(传感器) is(is) able(能够) to(to) instantly(即时) track(跟踪) the position(位置) of(of) an(an) impinging(撞击) laser beam(激光束).(.)
"(")Previous(以前) generations(一代) of(of) DDPS(DDPS) were(were) quite(相当) a(一个) bit(bit) larger() than(than) the system(系统) we(我们) are(are) now(现在) able(能够) to(to) deploy(部署),"(,") says() McCallen.(McCallen.) "(")Based on(基于) design(设计) advancements(进步) and() lessons(经验教训) learned(学习),(,) the sensor(传感器) is(is) a(a) quarter(四分之一) of(of) the size(尺寸) of(of) our(我们的) original(原始) sensor(传感器) design(设计),(,) but() features(特征) 92(92) diodes(二极管) staggered(交错) in(in) a(a) rectangular(矩形) array(阵列) so(因此) that(that) the laser beam(激光束) is(is) always(始终) on(on) one(one) or() more(more) diodes(二极管)."(.")
So far(到目前为止),(,) DDPS(DDPS) has(has) held(举行) up(up) to(to) three(three) rounds() of(of) rigorous(严格) experimental(实验性) shake() table() testing(测试).(.)
"(")The rigorous(严格) testing(测试) the DDPS(DDPS) has(has) undergone(经历) indicates(表明) how(如何) the drift(漂移) displacements(位移) measured(测试) on(on) the three(三个) testbeds() compared(相比) to(to) representative(代表性) drifts(漂移) that(that) could(可以) be(be) achieved(实现) on(on) an(an) actual(实际) full()-()scale() building(建筑物) undergoing(发生) strong(强烈) shaking() from(from) an(an) earthquake(地震),"(,") McCallen(麦卡伦) said().(.)
Why(为什么) DDPS(DDPS) is(is) smart(聪明) for(for) cities(城市)
The most() populous() town(城镇) affected(影响) by(by) the earthquakes(级地震) in(in) southern(南部) California(加利福尼亚州) earlier(早些时候) this() month() was() Ridgecrest(里奇克莱斯特) itself(本身),(,) a(一个) city(城市) of(of) 29,000(29,000) which(which) sits(位于) at(at) the epicenter(震中) of(of) a(a) magnitude(大小) 7.1(7.1) earthquake(地震) which(which) took(took) place(发生) on(on) July(7月) 5(5) .(.) Even though(尽管) this() is() a(a) small() population(人口) center(中心),(,) the building(建筑物) damage(损失) estimates(估计) are(are) still() in(in) the $100-million($100-million) range(范围).(.)
If(如果) an(an) earthquake(地震) of(of) that() magnitude(大规模) were(were) to(to) hit() Los() Angeles(杉矶) 150(150) miles(英里) to(to) the south() of(of) tiny(微小) Ridgecrest(奇克莱斯特),(,) or() San(位于) Francisco(旧金山),(,) nearly() 400(400) miles(英里) north(北部),(,) literally(字面) hundreds(数百) to(to) thousands(数千) of(of) buildings(建筑物) would() be(be) at(at) stake(受到威胁) for(for) damage(损害).(.) In(In) that(that) scenario(情况下),(,) the ability(能力) to(to) measure(测量) and() display(显示) key(关键) interstory(层间) drift(漂移) information(信息) immediately(立即) after(after) an(an) earthquake(地震) would() provide(提供) critical(关键) new() data(数据) for(for) making() informed(明智) decisions(决策) on(on) building(建筑物) occupancy(占用)()giving() first(第一) responders(响应者) information(信息) to(to) help(帮助) guide(指导) their(他们) efforts(工作) to(to) evacuate(撤离) a(a) building(建筑物),(,) and(以及) municipalities(市政当局) the potential(潜力) to(to) maintain(保持) functional(功能) use(使用) of(of) important(重要) facilities(设施) such(这种) as(as) hospitals(医院).(.)
In addition(此外),(,) understanding(了解) a(a) building(建筑物)'s('s) drift(漂移) profile(剖面) would(would) allow() a(a) quick(快速) determination(确定) of(of) building(建筑物) damage(损坏) potential(潜力),(,) letting() building(建筑) inspectors(检查员) know(知道) where(哪里) to(to) look(寻找) for(for) potential(潜在) damage(损坏).(.) This() will() be(be) an(an) important(重要) capability(能力) in(in) moving(移动) beyond(beyond) time()-()consuming(耗时) and() challenging(具有挑战性) manual(人工) inspections(检查) of(of) hundreds(数百) of(of) buildings(建筑物) after(之后) the next() major(重大) urban(城市) earthquake(地震).(.)
McCallen(麦卡伦) noted(指出),(,) "(")The major(主要) earthquakes(地震) that(that) struck(发生) in(in) southern(南部) California(加利福尼亚) this(这个) past(过去) week() serve as(作为) a(a) reminder(提醒) of(of) the risks(风险) associated(相关) with(with) seismic(地震) activity(活动) across(across) many(许多) regions(地区) of(of) the United States(美国).(.) These(这些) events(事件) put(put) an(an) exclamation(惊讶) point() on(on) the need(需要) for(for) continued(继续) societal(社会) focus(关注) on(on) earthquake(地震) readiness(准备) and() resilience(恢复),(,) including(包括) an(an) ability(能力) to(to) provide(提供) the sensors(传感器) and() data analysis(数据分析) that(that) can(能够) rapidly(快速) measure(测量) infrastructure(基础设施) health(健康状况) and() inform(通知) the most() effective(有效) response(响应) after(after) the next() major(重大) quake(地震)."(.")

新闻订阅

  • 科学
  • 技术
  • 医学

新闻分享