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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
环境 38
Diamonds(钻石) are() forever(永久),(,) and() so(如此) is() the permanently(永久) frozen(冻结) ground(地面) of(of) Yakutia(雅库特) in(in) north(北部) eastern() Siberia(西伯利亚),(,) home() to(to) huge(巨大) diamond(钻石) deposits(矿床) that(that) ensure(确保) Russia(俄罗斯)'s('s) supremacy(至高) in(in) world(世界) production(生产) of(of) the luxury(奢侈品) stone(石头).(.)
In(In) the city() of(of) Mirny(米尔尼),(,) the sun(阳光) shines(闪耀) almost(几乎) continuously(不断) during(during) the region(地区)'s('s) white night(白夜) season(季节) in(in) early() July(7月),(,) with(with) temperatures(温度) exceeding(超过) 30(30) degrees Celsius(摄氏度).(.)
But(但是) the summer(夏天) does(does) not() last(持续) long().(.) Yakutia(雅库特) is(is) known(已知) for(for) having() the coldest(寒冷) winters(冬天) on(on) the planet(地球),(,) which(which) drag() on(on) for(for) nine(九个) dark(黑暗) months(月份).(.)
This(这个) region(地区)()rich(富含) in(in) oil(石油),(,) gas(天然气) and() precious metals(贵金属)—is(—is) also() home() to(to) eleven(十一个) out of(out of) twelve(十二) mines(矿山) belonging to(属于) Russia(俄罗斯)'s('s) Alrosa(Alrosa) group(集团),(,) the world(世界)'s('s) largest(最大) producer(生产国) of(of) rough() carats().(.)
The majority(大多数) state()-() and() local(地方) government(政府)-()owned(所有) company(公司) employs(雇用) most(most) of(of) Mirny(米尔尼)'s('s) 35,000(35,000) inhabitants(居民) and() contributes(贡献) around(around) 40(40) percent() of(of) the wider(广泛) region(地区)'s('s) budget(预算) in(in) taxes(税收).(.)
Alrosa(Alrosa),(,) which(which) has(has) been(been) criticised(批评) by(by) some(部分) locals(当地人) for(for) alleged(涉嫌) environmental(环境) damage(破坏) including(包括) polluting(污染) water(水源) supplies(提供),(,) has(has) a(a) reputation() for(for) secrecy(保密) but() is(is) now(现在) making(making) efforts(努力) to(to) demonstrate(展示) some(一些) of(of) its() work(工作).(.)
In(In) Mirny(米尔尼),(,) a(一个) gaping() hole() of(of) massive() depths(深度)()the abandoned() mine(矿山) "(")Mir(Mir)"—("—)stretches(延伸) out(out) into(into) the city(城市).(.) It() is(is) more than(超过) a(a) kilometre(公里) in(in) diameter(直径) and() 525(525) meters() deep(深度),(,) or() nearly() two(两个) Eiffel(埃菲尔铁塔) towers() placed(放置) end() to(to) end().(.)
Oleg(Oleg) Popov(Popov),(,) the director(主任) of(of) Mirny(米尔尼)'s('s) diamond(钻石) sorting() centre(中心),(,) shows(展示) off(off) a(一个) billiard(台球) table() covered(覆盖) in(in) shiny(闪亮) stones(宝石).(.)
"(")There() are(are) 14,000(14,000) carats(克拉) worth(价值) around(around) $9($9) million() on(on) this() table(桌子),"(,") he() said().(.)
Explosions(爆炸) in(in) -55(-55) centigrade(摄氏度)
"(")Each() stone(石头) must(必须) be(be) sorted(分类) by(by) size(尺寸),"(,") said() Irina(伊琳娜) Senyukova(森尤),(,) leaning(靠在) on(on) stones(石头) in(in) the nearby(附近) sorting(分拣) room().(.)
To(To) reach(到达) the next(下一个) diamond(钻石) deposits(矿床) themselves(自己),(,) visitors(游客) board(登上) a(a) 20-(20-)seater() Antonov(安东诺夫) plane(飞机) and() head() north(),(,) across(穿过) the taiga(针叶林),(,) to(to) Nakyn(Nakyn),(,) where(where) Alrosa(Alrosa) operates(经营) two(两个) open(露天) pit() mines(矿山) and() is(is) planning(计划) for(for) a(a) third(第三) out(out) in(in) the wilderness(荒野).(.)
The most() productive(生产力) mine(矿井),(,) Botuobinskaya(Botuobinskaya),(,) is(is) currently(目前) only(只有) 130(130) metres() deep(),(,) but() the company(公司) plans(计划) to(to) dig down(掏腰包) 580(580) metres().(.)
The operating(运营) mines(矿山) will() be(be) exploitable(开采) until() 2041,(2041,) the company(公司) hopes(希望).(.)
Inside(Inside) the mines(矿井),(,) the temperature(温度) drops() to(to) -55(-55) degrees Celsius(摄氏度) in(in) winter(冬季),(,) which(which) requires(需要) an(an) increased(增加) use(使用) of(of) explosives(炸药) to(to) extract(提取) diamonds(钻石).(.)
"(")The climate(气候) has(has) an(an) impact(影响) on(on) our(我们) machines(机器),(,) but() they(它们) are(are) adapted(适应) to(to) the extreme conditions(极端条件),"(,") said() Mikhail(Mikhail) Dyachenko(Dyachenko),(,) deputy() chief(主任) of(of) the mine(矿山),(,) standing() on(on) the edge() of(of) the precipice(悬崖) and() wearing() a(a) safety(安全) helmet(头盔).(.)
"(")Man(人类) will() adapt(适应) to(to) anything(任何事情),(,) most(大多数) of(of) the miners(矿工) are() natives(土著人) of(of) the region(地区).(.) They(他们) know(了解) this(这种) climate(气候) well(well),"(,") he() added(补充).(.)
Trucks(卡车) go(go) down(沿着) the mine(矿井) slowly(慢慢地),(,) spiralling(螺旋形的) down(沿着) thin() dirt() roads() dug(挖到) into(into) the rock(岩石).(.) The descent(下降) can() last(持续) up(up) to(to) an(一个) hour(小时).(.)
In(In) each() ton() of(of) ground(地面),(,) there() are(are) around(around) 6.2(6.2) carats(克拉) of(of) diamonds(钻石).(.) After(After) sorting(分拣),(,) the rough(毛坯) diamonds(钻石) are(are) transported(运输) on(on) secret(秘密) flights(航班) to(to) be(be) sold(销售) around(around) the world(世界).(.)
Some(有些) are(are) flown() to(to) polishing(抛光) centres(中心) in(in) Moscow(莫斯科) and() Smolensk(斯摩棱斯克),(,) a(a) city(城市) in(in) Western(西部) Russia(俄罗斯).(.)
The process(过程) takes place(举行) under(under) heavy() security(保安),(,) which(which) was() tightened(收紧) further(进一步) since(由于) a(a) small() gang(帮派) of(of) employees(雇员) stole(偷走了) three(three) million(300万) dollars(美元) worth(价值) of(of) diamonds(钻石) last() month(个月).(.)
The diamonds(钻石) were() later(后来) recovered(收回).(.)
Drinking water(饮用水)
Mirny(Mirny) was(was) founded(发现) in(in) the mid(中期)-1950s(-1950s) after(after) the discovery(发现) of(of) the first(第一) diamonds(钻石).(.) Its(它的) first(第一个) mine(矿井) functioned(运作) until() 2001,(2001,) and() it(it) was(was) closed(关闭) down(down) in(in) 2017(2017) after(after) a(a) flood(洪水) killed(死亡) eight(8) people().(.)
Last year(去年) several() dams(大坝) built(建造) by(by) the company(公司) broke() and() villages(村庄) around(周围) Yakutia(雅库特)'s('s) Vilyuy(Vilyuy) River() said() they(他们) could(可能) no() longer() use() it() as(as) a(a) water source(水源).(.)
Russia(俄罗斯)'s('s) environment(环境) watchdog(监管机构) estimated(估计) the damage(损失) to(to) the Vilyuy(Vilyuy) basin(流域) at(at) 22.1(22.1) billion(亿) rubles(卢布) ((()over(超过) $330($330) million(百万),(,) 290(290) million(百万) euros(欧元))()) but() said() Alrosa(Alrosa) would(would) not() be(be) held(举行) accountable(责任) as(因为) the accident(事故) was() caused(造成) by() a(a) natural disaster(自然灾害).(.)
Separately(),(,) the company(公司) said(表示) in(in) April(4月) it() would() provide(提供) 833(833) million(百万) rubles(卢布) ($13(($13) million(亿),(,) 11.5(11.5) million(1300万美) euros(欧元))()) over(over) five() years(年内) for(for) a(a) programme(计划) to(to) improve(改善) the quality(质量) of(of) drinking water(饮用水) in(in) the river(河流) area(区域).(.)
Miners(矿工) are() exclusively(完全) men(男性),(,) predominantly(主要) from(from) the region(地区) but() also() from(from) the rest(其他) of(of) Russia(俄罗斯).(.) Planes(飞机) or() helicopters(直升机) carry() the miners(矿工) to(to) the sites(现场),(,) where(where) they(他们) work(工作) eleven(11) hours(小时) a(a) day(每天) for(for) two(two) weeks(),(,) then(然后) have(have) a(a) two(two) week() break(休息).(.)
"(")Local(当地),(,) indigenous(土著) communities(社区) lived(居住) here(这里),(,) and() still(仍然) live(生活) nearby(附近)()they(他们) are() reindeer(驯鹿) herders(牧民),(,) but() some(一些) of(of) them(他们) go() to(to) the city() to(to) look(寻找) for(for) work(工作),"(,") said() Dmitry(德米) Averyanov(诺诺),(,) who(who) drives(驱动) trucks(卡车) that(that) survey(调查) the mines(地雷).(.)
As(As) for(for) the future(未来),(,) Alrosa(Alrosa) is(is) looking(寻找) for(for) ways(方法) to(to) re-(re-)open(开放) Mirny(Mirny)'s('s) mine(矿山).(.) Works(工程) are(are) not() due to(由于) start(开始) before(before) 2024(2024) and() their() cost(成本) is(is) estimated(估计) at(at) 73(73) million() rubles(卢布).(.)

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