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智科眼:双语看文献,比老外还快!
量子物理学 9811
Majorana(马约拉纳) particles(粒子) are() very (非常) peculiar(奇特的) members (成员) of(of) the() family (家族) of(of) elementary (基本) particles(粒子).(.)First(首次) predicted (预测) in(in) 1937(1937) by(by) the() Italian (意大利) physicist (物理学家) Ettore(Ettore) Majorana(Majorana),(,) these (这些) particles (粒子) belong to (属于) the() group () of(of) so-()called(所谓) fermions(费米子),(,) a(一个) group() that(that) also () includes (包括) electrons(电子),(,) neutrons (中子) and() protons(质子).(.)Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) are() electrically () neutral (中性) and(并且) also (也是) their(他们) own (自己的) anti()-()particles(粒子).(.)These (这些) exotic (外来) particles (粒子) can(可以),(,) for example(例如),(,) emerge (出现) as(as) quasi()-()particles (粒子) in(in) topological (拓扑) superconductors (超导体) and(并且) represent (代表) ideal (理想) building(构建) blocks () for(for) topological (拓扑) quantum (量子) computers(计算机).(.)[PHP_EOL]Going(进入) to() two(二维) dimensions()[PHP_EOL]On(On) the() road () to(to) such(这样的) topological (拓扑) quantum (量子) computers (计算机) based on (基于) Majorana(马约拉纳) quasi()-()particles(粒子),(,) physicists (物理学家) from(from) the() University (大学) of(of) ()rzburg(维尔茨堡) together(together) with(with) colleagues (同事) from(from) Harvard (哈佛) University (大学) (USA)((USA)) have(已经) made(迈出了) an() important (重要) step(一步):(:) Whereas(Whereas) previous(以前的) experiments (实验) in(in) this() field (领域) have() mostly (主要) focused(集中在) on() one(一维)-()dimensional () systems(系统),(,) the() teams (团队) from(from) ()rzburg(维尔茨堡) and(and) Harvard (哈佛) have(已经) succeeded (成功) in(in) going(进入) to() two(二维)-()dimensional () systems(系统).(.)[PHP_EOL]In(In) this(这次) collaboration(合作),(,) the() groups(团队) of(of) Ewelina(Ewelina) Hankiewicz(Hankiewicz) ((()Theoretische(理论) Physik(物理) IV)(IV)) and(and) Laurens(Laurens) Molenkamp(Molenkamp) ((()Experimentelle(实验) Physik(物理) III)(III)) from(from) the() University (大学) of(of) ()rzburg(维尔茨堡) teamed(合作) up() with(with) the() groups(团队) of(of) Amir(Amir) Yacoby(Yacoby) and() Bertrand(Bertrand) Halperin(Halperin) from(from) Harvard (哈佛) University(大学).(.)Their(他们的) findings(研究成果) are() presented(发表) in(in) the() current(最新) issue(一期) of(of) the() scientific (科学) journal (期刊) Nature(《自然》).(.)[PHP_EOL]Two (两个) superconductors (超导体) can(可以) simplify (简化) matters(问题)[PHP_EOL]"(")Realizing (实现) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) is() one (一个) of() the() most() intensely(深入的) studied (研究) topics (主题) in(in) condensed (凝聚态物理) matter () physics(),"(,") Ewelina(Ewelina) Hankiewicz(Hankiewicz) says().(.)According(根据) to() her(),(,) previous (以前的) realizations (实现) have() usually (通常) focused(集中在) on() one(一维)-()dimensional () systems (系统) such(诸如) as() nanowires(纳米线).(.)She () explains (解释说) that(that) a() manipulation (操纵) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) is() very (非常) difficult (困难的) in(in) these (这些) setups(设置).(.)It() would() therefore (因此) require (需要) significant(巨大的) efforts (努力) to(to) make (使) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) in(in) these (这些) setups (设置) eventually (最终) applicable (适用) for(for) quantum (量子) computing(计算).(.)[PHP_EOL]In order (为了) to() avoid (避免) some() of() these (这些) difficulties(困难),(,) the() researchers (研究人员) have(已经) studied (研究) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) in(in) a() two(二维)-()dimensional () system (系统) with(with) strong() spin(自旋)-(-)orbit (轨道) coupling(耦合).(.)"(")The() system (系统) we(我们) investigate(所研究的) is() a() so-(所谓)called() phase(相控)-()controlled() Josephson (约瑟夫森) junction(),(,) that() is,(,) two (两个) superconductors (超导体) that(that) are() separated(隔开) by(by) a() normal (正常) region(区域),"(,") Laurens(Laurens) Molenkamp(Molenkamp) explains(解释说).(.)The() superconducting phase (超导相) difference() between(between) the() two (两个) superconductors (超导体) provides (提供) an(一个) additional (额外) knob(旋钮),(,) which() makes(使得) an() intricate (复杂) fine(微调)-()tuning() of(of) the() other (其他) system parameters (系统参数) at least (至少) partially (部分) unnecessary(不必要).(.)[PHP_EOL]Important (重要) step (一步) towards(towards) an() improved(改进) control(控制)[PHP_EOL]In(In) the() material (材料) studied(研究),(,) a(a) mercury(碲化汞) telluride () quantum (量子) well() coupled (耦合) to() superconducting(超导) thin()-()film (薄膜) aluminium(),(,) the() physicists (物理学家) observed (首次观察到) for() the() first() time () a() topological (拓扑) phase transition (相变) which() implies (意味着) the() appearance (出现) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) in(in) phase(相控)-()controlled() Josephson (约瑟夫森) junctions().(.)[PHP_EOL]The() setup(设置) realized (实现) experimentally (实验) here(这里) constitutes (构成) a() versatile(通用) platform (平台) for(for) the() creation(创建),(,) manipulation (操作) and() control (控制) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子),(,) which() offers(具有) several(多种) advantages (优势) compared (相比于) to() previous (以前) one(一维)-()dimensional () platforms(平台).(.)According (根据) to() Hankiewicz(Hankiewicz),(,) "(")this(这是) is() an() important (重要) step (一步) towards(towards) an() improved (改善) control (控制) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子).(.)"(") The(The) proof (证明) of(of) concept (概念) of(of) a() topological (拓扑) superconductor (超导体) based on (基于) a(a) two(二维)-()dimensional () Josephson (约瑟夫森) junction() opens(开辟了) up() new (新的) possibilities (可能性) for(for) the() research (研究) on(on) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) in(in) condensed (凝聚态物理) matter () physics().(.)In particular(特别是),(,) several(若干) constraints (约束) of(of) previous(先前) realizations (实现) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) can(可以) be() avoided(避免).(.)[PHP_EOL]Potential (潜在) revolution (革命) in(in) computer (计算机) technology(技术)[PHP_EOL]At the (同时) same() time(),(,) an() improved(改进的) control (控制) of(of) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) represents (代表) an() important (重要) step (一步) towards(towards) topological (拓扑) quantum (量子) computers(计算机).(.)Theoretically(理论上),(,) such(这种) computers (计算机) can(可以) be() significantly(明显) more() powerful (强大) than(than) conventional (传统) computers(计算机).(.)They(它们) thus (因此) have() the() potential(潜力) to(to) revolutionize (彻底改变) computer (计算机) technology(技术).(.)[PHP_EOL]Next(接下来),(,) the() researchers (研究人员) plan (计划) to(to) improve(改进) the() Josephson (约瑟夫森) junctions() and() move (移动) towards(towards) junctions() with(with) narrower (更窄的) normal (正常) regions(区域).(.)Here(这里),(,) more (更多) localized (定域化的) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions (费米子) are(are) expected(预计).(.)They(他们) further (进一步) study (研究) additional(其他) possibilities (可能性) of(of) manipulating (操纵) Majorana(马约拉纳) fermions(费米子),(,) for example(例如),(,) by(通过) using (使用) other (其他) semiconductors(半导体).(.)[PHP_EOL][PHP_EOL]

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DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1148-9Nature 2019-05-10 By Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

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