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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
凝聚态 69
In(In) a(a) paper(论文) released(释放) today(今天) in(in) Science(科学) Advances(进展),(,) Australian(澳大利亚) researchers(研究人员) describe(描述了) the first(首次) observation(观察) of(of) a(a) native(天然) ferroelectric(铁电) metal(金属):(:) a(a) native(本土) metal(金属) with(with) bistable(双稳态) and() electrically() switchable(可切换) spontaneous polarization(自发极化) states(状态)()the hallmark(标志) of(of) ferroelectricity(铁电).(.) The study(研究) found(发现) coexistence(共存) of(of) native(天然) metallicity(金属性) and() ferroelectricity(铁电性) in(in) bulk(大块) crystalline(结晶) tungsten() ditelluride(二碲化物) (WTe2)((WTe2)) at(at) room temperature(室温).(.) A(A) van(van)-()der(der)-()Waals() material(材料) that(that) is(is) both(both) metallic(金属) and() ferroelectric(铁电体) in(in) its(its) bulk(块状) crystalline(晶体) form(形式) at(at) room temperature(室温) has(has) potential(潜力) for(for) nano(纳米)-()electronics(电子) applications(应用).(.)
The study(研究) represents(代表) the first(第一个) example(例子) of(of) a(a) native(本土) metal(金属) with(with) bistable(双稳态) and() electrically(电性) switchable(可切换) spontaneous polarization(自发极化) states(状态)()the hallmark(标志) of(of) ferroelectricity(铁电).(.)
"We("We) found(发现) coexistence(共存) of(of) native(天然) metallicity(金属性) and() ferroelectricity(铁电性) in(in) bulk(大块) crystalline(结晶) tungsten() ditelluride(二碲化物) (WTe2)((WTe2)) at(at) room temperature(室温),"(,") explains(解释说) study(研究) author(作者) Dr(博士) .(.) Pankaj(Pankaj) Sharma(Sharma).(.)
"We("We) demonstrated(证明了) that(that) the ferroelectric(铁电性) state(状态) is(is) switchable(可切换) under(under) an(an) external(外部) electrical() bias(偏压) and() explain(解释) the mechanism(机制) for(for) '(')metallic(金属) ferroelectricity(铁电)'(') in(in) WTe2(WTe2) through(通过) a(a) systematic study(系统研究) of(of) the crystal structure(晶体结构),(,) electronic(电子) transport(传输) measurements(测量) and() theoretical(理论) considerations(考虑)."(.")
"A("A) van() der() Waals(瓦尔斯) material(材料) that(that) is(is) both(both) metallic(金属) and() ferroelectric(铁电) in(in) its(its) bulk(大块) crystalline form(晶形) at(at) room temperature(室温) has(has) potential(潜力) for(for) new() nano(纳米)-()electronics(电子) applications(应用),"(,") says() author(作者) Dr(博士) .(.) Feixiang(Feixiang) Xiang(xiang).(.)
Ferroelectric(铁电) backgrounder(背景资料)
Ferroelectricity(铁电性) can(可以) be() considered(认为) an(an) analogy(类比) to(to) ferromagnetism(铁磁性).(.) A(一个) ferromagnetic(铁磁) material(材料) displays(显示) permanent(永久) magnetism(磁性),(,) and() in(in) layperson(非专)'s('s) terms(术语),(,) is() simply(),(,) a(a) '(')magnet(磁铁)'(') with(with) north() and() south pole(南极).(.) Ferroelectric material(铁电材料) likewise(同样) displays(显示) an(an) analogous(类似) electrical() property(特性) called(称为) a(a) permanent(永久) electric() polarisation(极化),(,) which(which) originates(源自) from(from) electric dipoles(电偶极子) consisting(组成) of(of) equal(相等),(,) but() oppositely(相反) charged(电荷) ends() or() poles().(.) In(In) ferroelectric materials(铁电材料),(,) these(这些) electric dipoles(电偶极子) exist(存在) at(at) the unit cell(晶胞) level() and() give(给出) rise(产生) to(to) a(a) non()-()vanishing(消失) permanent(永久) electric dipole moment(偶极矩).(.)
This(这种) spontaneous(自发) electric dipole moment(偶极矩) can(可以) be(be) repeatedly(重复) transitioned(转换) between(between) two(两个) or() more(more) equivalent(等效) states(状态) or() directions(方向) upon(upon) application(使用) of(of) an(an) external(外部) electric field(电场)—a(—a) property(属性) utilised(利用) in(in) numerous(许多) ferroelectric(铁电) technologies(技术),(,) for example(例如) nano(纳米)-()electronic computer(电子计算机) memory(存储器),(,) RFID(RFID) cards(),(,) medical(医疗) ultrasound(超声) transducers(传感器),(,) infrared(红外) cameras(照相机),(,) submarine(潜艇) sonar(声纳),(,) vibration(振动) and() pressure sensors(压力传感器),(,) and(以及) precision(精密) actuators(执行器).(.)
Conventionally(通常),(,) ferroelectricity(铁电性) has(has) been(been) observed(观察) in(in) materials(材料) that(that) are(are) insulating(绝缘) or() semiconducting(半导体) rather than(而不是) metallic(金属),(,) because(因为) conduction electrons(传导电子) in(in) metals(金属) screen(屏蔽)-()out(out) the static(静态) internal(内部) fields() arising(引起) from(from) the dipole moment(偶极矩).(.)
The study(研究)
A(A) room-temperature(室温) ferroelectric(铁电) semimetal(半金属) was(was) published(发表) in(in) Science(科学) Advances(进展) in(in) July(7月) 2019.(2019.)
Bulk(散装) single()-()crystalline() tungsten() ditelluride(二碲化物) (WTe2),((WTe2),) which(which) belongs to(属于) a(a) class() of(of) materials(材料) known as(被称为) transition metal(过渡金属) dichalcogenides(二硫) (TMDCs),((TMDCs),) was(was) probed(探测) by(通过) spectroscopic(光谱) electrical() transport(传输) measurements(测量),(,) conductive(导电)-()atomic force(原子力) microscopy(显微镜) (c-AFM)((c-AFM)) to(to) confirm(确认) its() metallic(金属) behaviour(行为),(,) and() by(通过) piezo(压电)-()response(响应) force() microscopy(显微镜) (PFM)((PFM)) to(to) map() the polarisation(极化),(,) detecting(检测) lattice(晶格) deformation(变形) due to(由于) an(an) applied(施加) electric field(电场).(.)
Ferroelectric domains(铁电畴)—ie,(—ie,) the regions(区域) with(with) oppositely(相反) oriented(取向) direction(方向) of(of) polarization(极化)()were(were) directly(直接) visualised(可视化) in(in) freshly()-()cleaved(切割) WTe2(WTe2) single crystals(单晶).(.)
Spectroscopic(光谱)-PFM(-PFM) measurements(测量) with(with) top electrode(顶部电极) in(in) a(a) capacitor(电容器) geometry(几何结构) was(was) used(使用) to(to) demonstrate(证明) switching(切换) of(of) the ferroelectric(铁电) polarization(极化).(.)
The study(研究) was(was) supported(得到) by(通过) funding(资助) from(from) the Australian(澳大利亚) Research(研究) Council(理事会) through(through) the ARC(ARC) Centre(中心) of(of) Excellence(卓越) in(in) Future(未来) Low-Energy(低能) Electronics(电子技术) Technologies(技术) (FLEET),((FLEET),) and() the work(工作) was(was) performed(进行) in(in) part(部分) using(使用) facilities(设施) of(of) the NSW(新南威尔士州) Nodes(节点) of(of) the Australian(澳大利亚) National(国家) Fabrication(制造) Facility(工厂),(,) with(with) the assistance(协助) of(of) the Australian(澳大利亚) Government(政府) Research(研究) Training Program(培训计划) Scholarship(奖学金) scheme(计划).(.)
First(第一)-()principles(原理) density functional theory(密度泛函理论) (DFT)((DFT)) calculations(计算) ((()University(大学) of(of) Nebraska(内布拉斯加))()) confirmed(证实了) the experimental(实验) findings(结果) of(of) the electronic(电子) and() structural(结构) origins(起源) of(of) the ferroelectric(铁电) instability(不稳定性) of(of) WTe2,(WTe2,) supported(支持) by() the National(国家) Science(科学) Foundation(基金会).(.)
Ferroelectric(铁电) studies(研究) at(at) FLEET(FLEET)
Ferroelectric materials(铁电材料) are(are) keenly(敏锐地) studied(研究) at(at) FLEET(车队) ((()the ARC(FLEET) Centre(中心) of(of) Excellence(卓越) in(in) Future(未来) Low-Energy(低能) Electronics(电子技术) Technologies(技术))()) for(for) their(它们) potential() use() in(in) low-energy(低能) electronics(电子产品),(,) '(')beyond(超越) CMOS'(CMOS') technology(技术).(.)
The switchable(可切换) electric dipole moment(偶极矩) of(of) ferroelectric materials(铁电材料) could(可以) for example(例如) be(be) used() as() a(a) gate(栅极) for(for) the underlying(下面) 2-D(2-D) electron(电子) system(系统) in(in) an(an) artificial(人造) topological(拓扑) insulator(绝缘体).(.)
In(In) comparison() with(with) conventional(传统) semiconductors(半导体),(,) the very(非常) close(接近) ((()sub()-()nanometre(纳米))()) proximity(接近) of(of) a(a) ferroelectric(铁电)'s('s) electron(电子) dipole moment(偶极矩) to(to) the electron gas(电子气) in(in) the atomic(原子) crystal(晶体) ensures(确保) more() effective(有效) switching(开关),(,) overcoming(克服了) limitations(局限性) of(of) conventional(传统) semiconductors(半导体) where(where) the conducting(导电) channel(沟道) is(is) buried() tens() of(of) nanometres(纳米) below(below) the surface(表面).(.)
Topological(拓扑) materials(材料) are(are) investigated(研究) within(within) FLEET's(FLEET's) Research(研究) theme(主题) 1,(1,) which(which) seeks(旨在) to(to) establish(建立) ultra-low(超低) resistance(电阻) electronic(电子) paths(路径) with(with) which(which) to(to) create(创建) a(a) new() generation(一代) of(of) ultra-low(超低) energy(能量) electronics(电子).(.)

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