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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
老兵专用医药 51
Brazilian(巴西) scientists(科学家) at(at) São(São) Paulo(保罗) State() University(大学) (UNESP)((UNESP)) collaborating(合作) with(with) colleagues(同事) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Maryland(马里兰) and() the United States(美国) Department() of(of) Agriculture(农业) (USDA)((USDA)) have(have) developed(开发) a(一个) dairy(奶牛) cattle() breeding(育种) method(方法) that(that) adds(增加了) a(一种) new() parameter(参数) to(to) genetic(遗传) selection(选择) and() conserves(保存) or(or) even(甚至) improves(改善) a(a) population(种群)'s('s) genetic diversity(遗传多样性).(.)
The study(研究),(,) which(which) is(is) published(发表) in(in) Journal(杂志) of(of) Dairy(乳品) Science(科学),(,) was(was) funded(基金) by() the São(São) Paulo(圣保罗) Research(研究) Foundation(基础)—FAPESP(—FAPESP) and() USDA.(USDA.)
Besides(除了) genetic(遗传) value(价值) associated(相关) with(with) milk(牛奶),(,) fat(脂肪) and() protein(蛋白质) yields(产量),(,) the new() method(方法) also() takes(需要) into(into) consideration(考虑) the variance(差异) in(in) gametic(配子) diversity(多样性) and() what(what) the authors(作者) call() "(")relative(相对) predicted(预测) transmitting(传递) ability(能力),"(,") defined(定义) as(as) an(一个) individual(个体) animal(动物)'s('s) capacity(能力) to(to) transmit() its() genetic(遗传) traits(特性) to(to) the next() generation(生成) based on(基于) this(这种) variance(差异).(.)
"(")Not(并非) all(所有) progeny(后代) of(of) highly() productive() animals(动物) inherit(继承) this(这种) quality(品质).(.) The new() method(方法) selects(选择) animals(动物) that() will() produce(产生) extremely(极其) productive(成效) offspring(后代),"(,") said() Daniel(丹尼尔) Jordan(约旦) de(de) Abreu(Abreu) Santos(桑托斯),(,) who(who) conducted(进行) the study(研究) while(while) he() was(was) a(a) postdoctoral(博士后) fellow() at(at) UNESP's(UNESP's) School(学院) of(of) Agricultural(农业) and() Veterinary(兽医) Sciences(科学) (FCAV)((FCAV)) in(in) Jaboticabal(Jaboticabal),(,) São(São) Paulo(保罗) State().(.)
Santos(桑托斯) is(is) currently(目前) doing(进行) more(更多) postdoctoral(博士后) research(研究) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) Maryland(马里兰) in(in) the United States(美国).(.) This() is() his() second(第二) stint(吝惜) at(at) Maryland(马里兰州),(,) where(where) he() was() previously(以前) a(a) research(研究) intern(实习生) with(with) a(a) scholarship(奖学金) from(from) the FAPESP.(FAPESP.)
"(")Gamete(配子) diversity(多样性) variance(方差) is() generated(产生) by() the separation(分离) of(of) homologous chromosomes(同源染色体) and() the rate() of(of) recombination(重组) between(between) genes(基因) linked(相关) to(to) them(它们).(.) It(It) isn(这一)'t('t) accounted(考虑) for(for) by(by) the traditional(传统) selection(选择) method(方法),"(,") Santos(桑托斯) told().(.)
The new() method(方法) estimates(估计) the probability(概率) of(of) the transmission(传播) of(of) traits(性状) to(to) the next(下一代) generation(生成) on(on) the basis() of(of) the genetic(遗传) data(数据) of(of) a(a) parent(亲本) or() the possible(可能) combinations(组合) in(in) a(a) given(给定) mating(交配).(.)
Although(虽然) it() was() developed(开发) for(for) the selection(选择) of(of) any(任何) species(物种),(,) in(in) this() study(研究),(,) the method(方法) was(was) applied(适用) to(to) Holstein(荷斯坦) and() Jersey(泽西) dairy(奶牛) cattle(奶牛) because of(由于) the volume(体积) and() quality(质量) of(of) the available(可用) data(数据).(.)
In(In) computer simulations(计算机模拟),(,) the method(方法) produced(产生) genetic(遗传) gains(增益) of(of) up(up) to(to) 16(16) percent() in(in) ten() generations() of(of) Holstein(荷斯坦牛) cattle(),(,) compared(比较) with(with) a(一个) control group(对照组) for(for) which(which) gamete(配子) diversity(多样性) was() not() a(a) factor(因素).(.)
Genomics(基因组学)
The study(研究) was() possible(可能) because(因为) matings(交配) can(可以) now(现在) be(be) simulated(模拟) using(使用) large(大型) genomics(基因组) databases(数据库) with(with) genetic(遗传) details(细节) for(for) the animals(动物) involved(涉及),(,) including(包括) genes(基因) associated(相关) with(with) certain(某些) traits(特征) of(of) interest(兴趣) in(in) breeding(育种) programs(计划).(.)
Based on(基于) these(这些) data(数据),(,) scientists(科学家们) can(可能) estimate(估计) the possible(可以) combinations(组合) of(of) the parents(父母)'(') genetic material(遗传物质) and() predict(预测) the traits(特征) of(of) their() progeny(后代).(.) However(然而),(,) traits(特征) are(are) not() uniformly distributed(均匀分布) among(之间) offspring(后代).(.)
Animals(动物) with(with) the desired(所需) traits(性状) may(may) produce(产生) offspring(后代) with(with) very(非常) high() or() low levels of(低水平的) these(这些) same(相同) traits(性状).(.) As a result(因此),(,) the predicted(预测) traits(特征) of(of) progeny(后代) in(in) terms(方面) of(of) milk(牛奶),(,) meat(肉类) or() fat(脂肪) yield(产量) are() only(仅仅) an(an) average(平均值) of(of) the parents(父母)'(') traits(特征).(.) The new() method(方法) enables(能够) scientists(科学家) to(to) estimate(估计) the substantial(实质) variation(变化) around(around) this(这种) average(平均值).(.)
"It's("It's) now(现在) possible(可以) to(to) predict(预测) which(which) animals(动物) will() produce(产生) highly() productive(生产) offspring(后代),(,) above(高于) the expected(预期) average(平均值),(,) before(before) they(他们) mate().(.) Gamete(配子) diversity(多样性) is() the factor(因素) that() generates(产生) this(这种) estimate(估计),(,) determining(决定) the animal(动物)'s('s) capacity(能力) to(to) transmit(传递) the traits(特征) of(of) interest(感兴趣) to(to) its() progeny(后代),"(,") Santos(桑托斯) said().(.)
To(To) apply(应用) the theory(理论) to(to) an(an) actual(实际) breeding(育种) program(计划),(,) Santos(桑托斯) used(使用) data(数据) for(for) over(超过) 160,000(160,000) Jersey(泽西) cattle() and() approximately() 1.4(1.4) million() Holstein(荷斯坦牛) cattle() from(from) the database() of(of) the USDA's(USDA's) Agricultural Research(农业研究) Service(服务).(.)
Holstein(荷斯坦) is() the world(世界)'s('s) major(主要) dairy(奶牛) breed(品种) and() accounts() for(for) 90(90) percent() of(of) all(所有) US(美国) dairy(奶牛) cattle(奶牛).(.)
Software(软件) developed(开发) by(by) the researchers(研究人员) was(was) used(用于) to(to) calculate(计算) the variation(变异) in(in) all(所有) possible(可能) chromosome(染色体) combinations(组合) and() enabled() them(它们) to(to) separate(分开) individual(个体) animals(动物) with(with) more(more) or() less(less) gamete(配子) diversity(多样性) variance(差异).(.)
"(")These(这些) variations(变化) can() be(be) used() to(to) select(选择) animals(动物) for(for) specific(特定) purposes(目的),"(,") Santos(桑托斯) said().(.) "(")You() can(可能) select(选择) animals(动物) to(to) have(have) more(更多) homogeneous(均质) progeny(后代),(,) which(which) you() might(可以) want(想要) to(to) do(do) in order to(为了) obtain(获得) traits(特征) such as(例如) birth weight(出生体重),(,) or(或者) more() heterogeneous(异质) progeny(后代) and() hence(因此) some(有些) offspring(后代) that(that) are(are) more() productive(生产力) than(than) the expected(预期) average(平均值)."(.")
Beyond(Beyond) guaranteeing(保证) that() successive(连续) generations(产生) are(are) as(as) productive(成效) as(as) their(他们的) parents(父母),(,) the new() parameter(参数) promises(有望) to(to) produce(产生) major(主要) genetic(遗传) gains(增益) in(in) progeny(后代) bred(培育) from(from) the same(相同) source(来源) animals(动物).(.)
The researchers(研究人员) also() investigated(研究) the possible(可能) impact(影响) of(of) the method(方法) on(on) actual(实际) dairy(奶牛) herds().(.) The match(匹配) between(between) variance(方差) based on(基于) genomic(基因组) data(数据) and() the actual(实际) variance(方差) observed(观察) in(in) adult(成年) female(雌性) progeny(后代) reached(达到) 90(90) percent() in(in) the case(情况) of(of) 400(400) offspring(后代) per(每个) sire(陛下).(.)
"(")This() is() cutting-edge(刃口) science(科学) and() will(will) take some time(需要一些时间) to(to) arrive(到达) in(in) Brazil(巴西),(,) but() its(its) current(目前) significance(意义) for(for) us(我们) is() that(that) we(我们) import(进口) a(a) lot(大量) of(of) genetic material(遗传物质) from() US(美国) Holstein(荷斯坦牛) for(for) breeding(繁殖) purposes(目的) and() a(a) large() proportion(比例) of(of) the Holstein(荷斯坦) genetic(遗传) base(基地) in(in) Brazil(巴西) comes(来自) from(from) semen(精液) produced(生产) in(in) the US,"(US,") said() Humberto(Humberto) Tonhati(FCAV-UNESP),(,) Full(完全) Professor(教授) at(at) FCAV-UNESP(FCAV-UNESP) and() principal(首席) investigator(研究员) for(for) the study(研究) in(in) Brazil(巴西).(.)
The new() parameter(参数) also(还有) helps() mitigate(减轻) the reductive(还原) impact(影响) of(of) selection(选择) on(on) a(a) population(种群)'s('s) genetic diversity(遗传多样性).(.) In(In) the case(情况) of(of) livestock(牲畜) such as(例如) cattle(),(,) genetic variability(遗传变异性) tends(往往) to(to) be(be) low() because of(由于) inbreeding(近亲繁殖).(.)
"(")The new() method(方法) offers(提供) a(一种) means(方法) of(of) maintaining(维持) genetic(遗传) variability(变异).(.) Individuals(个体) considered(考虑) better(更好) by(通过) the traditional(传统) method(方法) will(will) often(往往) be() endogamous(同系交配的)()offspring(后代) from(from) the same(同一) gene pool(基因库)()but(但是) when(when) the new() parameter(参数) is() taken(采取) into(into) account(考虑),(,) they(它们) can(可能) no() longer() be(be) classed(归类) among(among) the best(最好),"(,") Santos(桑托斯) said().(.)

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