智科眼

请选择以下任意方式登录

已有帐号?

验证码登录

微信登录

忘记密码
未收到验证码?
注册

微信注册

智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
材料科学 41
Self()-()assembling(组装) materials(材料) called(称为) block(嵌段) copolymers(共聚物),(,) which(which) are(are) known(已知) to(to) form(形成) a variety of(各种) predictable(可预测),(,) regular(规则) patterns(图案),(,) can(可能) now(现在) be(be) made(制成) into(into) much more() complex(复杂的) patterns(图案) that(that) may(可以) open() up(up) new(新的) areas(领域) of(of) materials design(材料设计),(,) a(a) team(团队) of(of) MIT(麻省理工学院) researchers(研究人员) say().(.)
The new() findings(发现) appear(出现) in(in) the journal(杂志) Nature Communications(Nature Communications),(,) in(in) a(a) paper(论文) by(by) postdoc(博士后) Yi(Yi) Ding(),(,) professors(教授) of(of) materials science(材料科学) and() engineering(工程) Alfredo(Alfredo) Alexander(亚历山大)-()Katz(Katz) and() Caroline(Caroline) Ross(罗斯),(,) and() three(three) others().(.)
"(")This() is() a(一个) discovery(发现) that(that) was(was) in(in) some(某种) sense(意义上) fortuitous(偶然),"(,") says() Alexander(亚历山大)-()Katz(卡茨).(.) "(")Everyone(每个人) thought(认为) this() was() not() possible(可能),"(,") he() says(),(,) describing(描述了) the team(团队)'s('s) discovery(发现) of(of) a(一种) phenomenon(现象) that(that) allows(能够) the polymers(聚合物) to(to) self()-()assemble(组装) in(in) patterns(模式) that(that) deviate(偏离) from(from) regular(规则) symmetrical(对称) arrays(阵列).(.)
Self()-()assembling(组装) block(嵌段) copolymers(共聚物) are() materials(材料) whose() chain(链状)-()like(like) molecules(分子),(,) which(which) are(are) initially(最初) disordered(无序),(,) will() spontaneously(自发地) arrange(排列) themselves(自己) into(into) periodic structures(周期性结构).(.) Researchers(研究人员) had(had) found(发现) that() if(如果) there(there) was(was) a(a) repeating(重复) pattern(图案) of(of) lines(线) or() pillars() created(产生) on(on) a(a) substrate(基板),(,) and() then(然后) a(a) thin film(薄膜) of(of) the block copolymer(嵌段共聚物) was(was) formed(形成) on(on) that(that) surface(表面),(,) the patterns(图案) from(from) the substrate(基板) would() be(be) duplicated(复制) in(in) the self()-()assembled(组装) material(材料).(.) But(但是) this(这种) method(方法) could(可能) only(只能) produce(生成) simple(简单) patterns(图案) such as(例如) grids(网格) of(of) dots() or() lines(线).(.)
In(In) the new() method(方法),(,) there(存在) are(are) two(两种) different(不同),(,) mismatched(不匹配) patterns(模式).(.) One(一种) is() from(from) a(一种) set() of(of) posts() or() lines(线) etched(蚀刻) on(on) a(a) substrate(基底) material(材料),(,) and() the other(other) is() an(an) inherent(固有) pattern(图案) that(that) is(is) created(产生) by() the self()-()assembling(组装) copolymer(共聚物).(.) For example(例如),(,) there(存在) may(可以) be(be) a(a) rectangular(矩形) pattern(图案) on(on) the substrate(基底) and(并且) a(a) hexagonal(六边形) grid(网格) that(that) the copolymer(共聚物) forms(形成) by(by) itself(自身).(.) One(One) would(would) expect(人们) the resulting(生成) block copolymer(嵌段共聚物) arrangement(排列) to(to) be(be) poorly() ordered(排序),(,) but() that(that)'s('s) not(不是) what(what) the team(团队) found(发现).(.) Instead(),(,) "it("it) was(was) forming(形成) something(东西) much more() unexpected(意想不到) and() complicated(复杂),"(,") Ross(罗斯) says().(.)
There() turned(事实证明) out(out) to(to) be(be) a(一种) subtle(微妙) but() complex(复杂的) kind() of(of) order()()interlocking(互锁) areas(区域) that() formed(形成了) slightly() different(不同) but() regular(规则) patterns(图案),(,) of(of) a(a) type(类型) similar(类似) to(to) quasicrystals(准晶体),(,) which(which) don(don)'t('t) quite(相当) repeat(重复) the way(不像) normal(普通) crystals(晶体) do.(do.) In(In) this(这种) case(情况),(,) the patterns(图案) do(确实) repeat(重复),(,) but() over(over) longer(更长) distances(距离) than(than) in(in) ordinary(普通) crystals(晶体).(.) "We're("We're) taking() advantage() of(of) molecular(分子) processes(过程) to(to) create(形成) these(这些) patterns(图案) on(on) the surface(表面)"(") with(with) the block copolymer(嵌段共聚物) material(材料),(,) Ross(罗斯) says().(.)
This() potentially(可能) opens(打开) the door(大门) to(to) new() ways(方法) of(of) making(制造) devices(装置) with(with) tailored(定制) characteristics(特性) for(for) optical systems(光学系统) or() for(for) "(")plasmonic(等离) devices(设备)"(") in(in) which(which) electromagnetic radiation(电磁辐射) resonates(共振) with(with) electrons(电子) in(in) precisely(精确) tuned(调谐) ways(方式),(,) the researchers(研究人员) say(表示).(.) Such(这种) devices(装置) require(需要) very(非常) exact(精确) positioning(定位) and() symmetry(对称性) of(of) patterns(图案) with(with) nanoscale(纳米级) dimensions(尺寸),(,) something(东西) this(这种) new() method(方法) can(可以) achieve(实现).(.)
Katherine(Katherine) Mizrahi(Mizrahi) Rodriguez(Rodriguez),(,) who(who) worked() on(on) the project(项目) as(as) an(an) undergraduate(本科生),(,) explains(解释说) that() the team(团队) prepared(准备) many(许多) of(of) these(这些) block copolymer(嵌段共聚物) samples(样品) and() studied(研究) them() under(under) a(a) scanning electron microscope(扫描电子显微镜).(.) Yi(Yi) Ding(),(,) who(who) worked(工作) on(on) this() for(for) his(他的) doctoral thesis(博士论文),(,) "(")started(开始) looking() over(over) and() over(over) to(to) see() if(是否) any(任何) interesting(有趣) patterns(模式) came(出现) up,"(up,") she() says().(.) "(")That()'s('s) when(when) all(所有) of(of) these(这些) new() findings(发现) sort(分类) of(of) evolved(发展)."(.")
The resulting(产生) odd(奇怪) patterns(图案) are() "a("a) result(结果) of(of) the frustration(受挫) between(between) the pattern(图案) the polymer(聚合物) would(would) like(like) to(to) form(形成),(,) and() the template(模板),"(,") explains(解释) Alexander(亚历山大)-()Katz(Katz).(.) That() frustration(挫败) leads to(导致) a(a) breaking(破坏) of(of) the original(原始) symmetries(对称性) and(以及) the creation(创造) of(of) new() subregions(子区域) with(with) different(不同) kinds() of(of) symmetries(对称性) within(within) them(他们),(,) he() says().(.) "(")That(That)'s('s) the solution(解决方案) nature(自然界) comes() up(up) with(with).(.) Trying(试图) to(to) fit(适应) in(in) the relationship(关系) between(between) these(它们) two(两种) patterns(模式),(,) it() comes() up(up) with(with) a(a) third(第三) thing(东西) that(that) breaks() the patterns(模式) of(of) both(两种) of(of) them(他们)."(.") They(他们) describe(描述) the new() patterns(模式) as(as) a(a) "(")superlattice(超晶格)."(.")
Having() created(创建) these(这些) novel(新颖) structures(结构),(,) the team(团队) went(继续) on(on) to(to) develop(开发) models(模型) to(to) explain(解释) the process(过程).(.) Co-(共同)author(作者) Karim(Karim) Gadelrab(Gadelrab) Ph(博士) .(.) D.(D.) '19,('19,) says(),(,) "(")The modeling(建模) work(工作) showed(表明) that(that) the emergent(新兴) patterns(模式) are() in fact(实际上) thermodynamically(热力学) stable(稳定),(,) and() revealed(揭示) the conditions(条件) under(under) which(which) the new() patterns(模式) would(would) form(形成)."(.")
Ding() says() "We("We) understand(理解) the system(系统) fully(完全) in terms of(依据) the thermodynamics(热力学),"(,") and() the self()-()assembling(组装) process(过程) "(")allows(使) us(我们) to(to) create(创造出) fine(精美) patterns(图案) and() to(to) access(获得) some(一些) new() symmetries(对称性) that(that) are(are) otherwise(否则) hard(难以) to(to) fabricate(制造)."(.")
He() says() this() removes(消除) some(一些) existing(现有) limitations(限制) in(in) the design(设计) of(of) optical() and() plasmonic(等离子体) materials(材料),(,) and() thus(从而) "(")creates(创造) a(a) new() path(路径)"(") for(for) materials design(材料设计).(.)
So far(到目前为止),(,) the work(工作) the team(团队) has(has) done() has(has) been(been) confined(局限于) to(to) two-dimensional(二维) surfaces(表面),(,) but() in(in) ongoing(在进行) work(工作) they(他们) are(are) hoping(希望) to(to) extend(扩展) the process(过程) into(into) the third(第三) dimension(),(,) says() Ross(罗斯).(.) "(")Three dimensional(三维) fabrication(制造) would(would) be(be) a(a) game(游戏) changer(改变),"(,") she() says().(.) Current(目前) fabrication(制造) techniques(技术) for(for) microdevices(微装置) build(构建) them(他们) up(up) one(一次) layer() at(at) a(a) time(),(,) she() says(表示),(,) but() "if("if) you() can(可能) build(构建) up(up) entire(整个) objects(对象) in(in) 3-D(3-D) in(in) one(one) go,"(go,") that(that) would(would) potentially(潜在) make(使) the process(过程) much more() efficient(高效).(.)

新闻订阅

  • 科学
  • 技术
  • 医学

新闻分享