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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
地球科学 1481
A(一项) new() study(研究) by(by) the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(伍兹霍尔海洋研究所) (WHOI)((WHOI)) clarifies(阐明) what(what) influence(影响) major(主要) currents(海流) in(in) the North(北部) Atlantic(大西洋) have(have) on(on) sea level(海平面) along(along) the northeastern(东北部) United States(美国).(.) The study(研究),(,) published(发表) June(6月) 13(13) in(in) the journal() Geophysical(地球物理) Research(研究) Letters(快报),(,) examined(研究) both(both) the strength(强度) of(of) the Atlantic(大西洋) Meridional(经向) Overturning(翻转) Circulation(环流) (AMOC)—a((AMOC)—a) conveyor(输送机) belt() of(of) currents(电流) that(that) move(移动) warmer(温暖) waters(水域) north() and() cooler() waters() south() in(in) the Atlantic(大西洋)()and(以及) historical(历史) records(记录) of(of) sea(海水) level(水平) in(in) coastal(沿海) New() England(英格兰).(.)
"(")Scientists(科学家) had(had) previously(此前) noticed(注意到) that() if(如果) the AMOC(AMOC) is(is) stronger(更强) in(in) a(a) given(给定) season(季节) or() year(一年),(,) sea levels(海平面) in(in) the northeast(东北部) U(U) .(.) S.(S.) go down(下降).(.) If(如果) the AMOC(AMOC) weakens(减弱),(,) average(平均) sea levels(海平面) rise(上升) considerably(大幅),"(,") says() Chris(Chris) Piecuch(Piecuch),(,) a(a) physical(物理) oceanographer(海洋学家) at(at) WHOI(WHOI) and() lead(lead) author(作者) on(on) the paper(论文).(.) "(")During(During) the winter(冬季) of(of) 2009-2010,(2009-2010,) for example(例如),(,) we(我们) saw(看到) the AMOC(AMOC) weaken(减弱) by(by) 30(30) percent().(.) At the same time(同时),(,) sea level(海平面) in(in) our(我们) region(地区) rose(上升) by(by) six(6) inches(英寸).(.) That(That) doesn(不是)'t('t) sound(听起来) like(like) a(a) lot(很多),(,) but() a(a) half()-()foot(英尺) of(of) sea level(海平面) rise(上升),(,) held() for(for) months(),(,) can(可能) have(have) serious(严重) coastal(沿海) impacts(影响)."(.")
"(")But(但是),(,) it's(it's) been(been) unclear(不清楚) whether(是否) those(那些) two(two) things()()coastal(沿海) sea level(海平面) and() the AMOC—(AMOC—)are(are) linked(关联) by(by) cause(原因) and() effect(影响),"(,") adds(补充) Piecuch(Piecuch).(.) Although(尽管) the study(研究) confirmed(证实) that() AMOC(AMOC) intensity(强度) and() sea level(海平面) seem(似乎) to(to) change(发生变化) at the same time(同时),(,) it() found(发现) that(that) neither(neither) directly(直接) causes(引起) changes(变化) in(in) the behavior(行为) of(of) the other().(.) Instead(),(,) both(同时) seem(似乎) to(to) be(be) controlled(控制) simultaneously(同时) by(by) variability(变化) in(in) major(主要) weather(天气) patterns(模式) over(over) the North() Atlantic(大西洋),(,) such as(例如) the North() Atlantic(大西洋) Oscillation(涛动) (NAO).((NAO).)
"(")Changes(变化) in(in) the NAO(NAO) alter(改变) both(both) AMOC(AMOC) and() sea level(海平面) separately(分别),"(,") says() Piecuch(Piecuch).(.) "As("As) the NAO(NAO) changes(变化),(,) it() affects(影响) the trade winds(信风),(,) which(which) blow() from(from) the east() across(across) the tropical(热带) Atlantic(大西洋).(.) When(When) the NAO(NAO) is(is) high(),(,) the trade winds(信风) are(are) stronger() than(than) normal(正常),(,) which(which) in(in) turn(转向) strengthens(加强) AMOC.(AMOC.) But() at the same time(同时),(,) the westerly(西风) winds() over(over) New() England(英格兰) are(are) also(同时) stronger(更强) than(than) usual(往常).(.) Together(Together) with(with) unusually(异常) high() air pressure(气压) on(on) the northeast(东北) coast(沿海),(,) this() lowers(降低) the average(平均) sea level(海平面).(.) It's(It's) wind() and() pressure(压力) that(that) are(are) driving(推动) both(两种) phenomena(现象)."(.")
According to(根据) Piecuch(Piecuch),(,) a(a) study(研究) like this(这样) was(was) not(not) even(even) possible(可能) until(直到) recently(最近).(.) For(For) the past(过去) few(few) decades(几十年),(,) satellite imagery(卫星图) has(has) given(给定) scientists(科学家们) a(a) record(记录) of(of) movement(运动) at(at) the ocean(海洋)'s('s) surface(表面),(,) but() has(has) been(been) unable(无法) to(to) detect(检测) currents(海流) below(below) the surface(地表).(.) Starting(开始) in(in) 2004,(2004,) however(然而),(,) an(一个) international(国际) team(团队) of(of) scientists(科学家) began(开始) maintaining(维护) a(a) chain(系列) of(of) instruments(仪器) that(that) stretch(拉伸) across(across) the Atlantic(大西洋) between(between) Florida(佛罗里达) and() Morocco(摩洛哥).(.) The instruments(仪器),(,) which(which) are(are) collectively() called(称为) the RAPID(快速) array(阵列),(,) hold(容纳) a variety of(各种) sensors(传感器) that(that) measure(测量) currents(电流),(,) salinity(盐度),(,) and() temperature(温度).(.) "RAPID("RAPID) doesn(并没)'t('t) resolve(解决) the details(细节) of(of) every(每个) individual(个体) current(电流) along(along) the way(),(,) but() it() does(确实) give() us(我们) the sum(总和) total() of(of) the ocean(海洋)'s('s) behavior(行为),(,) which(which) is() what(what) the AMOC(AMOC) represents(代表),"(,") Piecuch(Piecuch) notes(指出).(.)
These(这些) findings(发现) are(are) particularly(尤为) important(重要) for(for) residents(居民) along(along) the northeast(东北) coast(沿海) of(of) the U(U) .(.) S.,(S.,) he() adds(补充).(.) Existing(现有) climate(气候) models(模型) suggest(表明) sea levels(海平面) will() rise(上升) globally(全球) in(in) the next() century(世纪) due to(由于) climate change(气候变化),(,) but() that(that) sea level(海平面) rise(上升) on(on) the New() England(英格兰) coast(海岸) will() be(be) greater() than(than) the global(全球) average(平均).(.) Scientists(科学家们) have(have) traditionally(传统上) assumed(认为) that(that) the heighted(heighted) future(未来) sea level(海平面) rise(上升) in(in) the northeast(东北部) U(U) .(.) S.(S.) is(is) inextricably(密不可分) tied() to(to) a(a) weakening(减弱) of(of) the AMOC,(AMOC,) which(which) the climate(气候) models(模型) also() predict(预测).(.) But(但是),(,) given(考虑) the study(研究)'s('s) findings(结果),(,) that() assumption(假设) might(可能) need(需要) to(to) be(be) revisited(重新),(,) Piecuch(Piecuch) says().(.) "(")The problem(问题) right() now(现在) is() that(that) we(我们) only(只有) have(have) about(大约) 13(13) years() of(of) AMOC(AMOC) data(数据) to(to) work(工作) with(with).(.) To(To) get(获得) a(a) better(更好地) sense(意义) of(of) how(如何) these() two(two) things() relate(互关联) to(to) one(one) another(another) in(in) the long term(长期),(,) we'll(we'll) need(需要) to(to) wait(等待) for(for) a(a) longer(更长) stretch(拉伸) of(of) observational(观察) records(记录) to(to) become() available(可用),"(,") he() says().(.)

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