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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
量子物理学 65869
A(一种) team() of(of) researchers(研究人员) from(from) ()lich(lich) in(in) cooperation(合作) with(with) the University(大学) of(of) Magdeburg(格德堡) has(has) developed(开发) a(a) new() method(方法) to(to) measure(测量) the electric() potentials(电位) of(of) a(a) sample(样品) at(at) atomic(原子) accuracy(精度).(.) Using(使用) conventional(常规) methods(方法),(,) it() was(was) virtually(几乎) impossible(不可能) until now(直到现在) to(to) quantitatively(定量地) record(记录) the electric potentials(电势) that(that) occur(发生) in(in) the immediate(直接) vicinity(附近) of(of) individual(单个) molecules(分子) or() atoms(原子).(.) The new(新的) scanning(扫描) quantum(量子) dot() microscopy(显微镜) method(方法),(,) which(which) was(was) recently(最近) presented(提出) in(in) the journal(杂志) Nature(本质) Materials(材料) by() scientists(科学家) from(from) Forschungszentrum(Forschungszentrum) ()lich(lich) together() with(with) partners(合作伙伴) from(from) two(两个) other(其他) institutions(机构),(,) could(可以) open() up() new(新的) opportunities(机会) for(for) chip(芯片) manufacture(制造) or() the characterization(表征) of(of) biomolecules(生物分子) such(such) as() DNA.(DNA.)
The positive() atomic nuclei(原子核) and() negative electrons(负电子) of(of) which(which) all(所有) matter(物质) consists(组成) produce(产生) electric potential(电势) fields() that(that) superpose(叠加) and() compensate(补偿) each other(彼此),(,) even(即使) over(over) very() short() distances(距离).(.) Conventional(传统) methods(方法) do(do) not() permit(允许) quantitative(定量) measurements(测量) of(of) these(这些) small()-()area(面积) fields(),(,) which(which) are(are) responsible(负责) for(for) many(许多) material(材料) properties(特性) and() functions(功能) on(on) the nanoscale(纳米尺度).(.) Almost(几乎) all(所有) established(既定) methods(方法) capable(能够) of(of) imaging(成像) such(这种) potentials(电位) are() based on(基于) the measurement(测量) of(of) forces() that(that) are(are) caused(引起) by(by) electric charges(电荷).(.) Yet(然而) these(这些) forces(力量) are(are) difficult() to(to) distinguish(区分) from(from) other(其他) forces() that(that) occur(发生) on(on) the nanoscale(纳米尺度),(,) which(which) prevents(阻碍) quantitative(定量) measurements(测量).(.)
Four() years ago(多年前),(,) however(然而),(,) scientists(科学家) from(from) Forschungszentrum(Forschungszentrum) ()lich(lich) discovered(发现) a(一种) method(方法) based on(基于) a(a) completely(完全) different(不同) principle(原理).(.) Scanning(扫描) quantum(量子) dot() microscopy(显微镜) involves(涉及) attaching() a(a) single(单个) organic(有机) molecule(分子)()the quantum(量子) dot()—to(—to) the tip(尖端) of(of) an(an) atomic force(原子力) microscope(显微镜).(.) This() molecule(分子) then(然后) serves as(用作) a(a) probe(探针).(.) "(")The molecule(分子) is(is) so(非常) small() that(that) we(我们) can(可以) attach(附加) individual(单个) electrons(电子) from(from) the tip(尖端) of(of) the atomic force(原子力) microscope(显微镜) to(to) the molecule(分子) in(in) a(a) controlled(控制) manner(方式),"(,") explains(解释说) Dr(博士) .(.) Christian(基督教) Wagner(瓦格纳),(,) head(负责人) of(of) the Controlled(受控) Mechanical(机械) Manipulation(操纵) of(of) Molecules(分子) group(group) at(at) ()lich(lich)'s('s) Peter(彼得) Grü(Grü)nberg(PGI-3) Institute(研究所) (PGI-3).((PGI-3).)
The researchers(研究人员) immediately(立即) recognized(认识) how(多么) promising(有前途) the method(方法) was(was) and() filed(提交) a(a) patent(专利) application(申请).(.) However(但是),(,) practical application(实际应用) was(was) still() a(a) long() way() off(off).(.) "(")Initially(最初),(,) it() was() simply() a(一个) surprising(令人惊讶) effect(效果) that() was(was) limited(有限) in(in) its(它的) applicability(适用性).(.) That(That) has(has) all(一切) changed(改变) now(现在).(.) Not only(不仅) can(可以) we(我们) visualize(可视化) the electric fields(电场) of(of) individual atoms(单个原子) and() molecules(分子),(,) we(we) can(可以) also() quantify(量化) them(它们) precisely(精确地),"(,") explains(解释说) Wagner(瓦格纳).(.) "(")This(这一) was(was) confirmed(证实了) by(通过) a(a) comparison(比较) with(with) theoretical calculations(理论计算) conducted(进行) by(by) our(我们) collaborators(合作者) from(from) Luxembourg(卢森堡).(.) In addition(此外),(,) we(我们) can(可以) image(成像) large() areas(面积) of(of) a(a) sample(样品) and() thus(从而) show(显示) a variety of(各种) nanostructures(纳米结构) at(at) once(once).(.) And() we(我们) only() need(需要) one(一个) hour(小时) for(for) a(a) detailed(详细) image(图像)."(.")
The ()lich(lich) researchers(研究人员) spent() years() investigating(研究) the method(方法) and() finally(最终) developed(发展) a(一个) coherent(连贯) theory(理论).(.) The reason(原因) for(for) the very(非常) sharp(清晰) images(图像) is() an(an) effect(效果) that(that) permits(允许) the microscope(显微镜) tip(尖端) to(to) remain(保持) at(at) a(a) relatively(相对较) large() distance(距离) from(from) the sample(样品),(,) roughly(大约) two(two) to(to) three(three) nanometres(纳米)()unimaginable(可想象) for(for) a(a) normal(普通) atomic force(原子力) microscope(显微镜).(.)
In(In) this(这种) context(情况下),(,) it() is() important(重要) to(to) know(知道) that(that) all(所有) elements(元素) of(of) a(a) sample(样品) generate(产生) electric fields(电场) that(that) influences(影响) the quantum(量子) dot() and() can(可以) therefore(因此) be(be) measured(测量).(.) The microscope(显微镜) tip(尖端) acts(作用) as(as) a(a) protective(保护) shield() that(that) dampens(抑制) the disruptive(破坏性) fields() from(from) areas(区域) of(of) the sample(样品) that(that) are(are) further(进一步) away(远离).(.) "(")The influence(影响) of(of) the shielded(屏蔽) electric fields(电场) thus(因此) decreases(下降) exponentially(呈指数),(,) and() the quantum(量子) dot() only() detects(检测) the immediate(直接) surrounding(周围) area(区域),"(,") explains(解释说) Wagner(瓦格纳).(.) "(")Our(我们) resolution(分辨率) is() thus(因此) much(much) sharper(更清晰) than(than) could(可能) be(be) expected(预期) from(from) even(即使) an(an) ideal(理想) point() probe(探测)."(.")
The ()lich(lich) researchers(研究人员) owe(owe) the speed(速度) at(at) which(which) the complete(完整) sample(样品) surface(表面) can(能够) be(be) measured(测量) to(to) their(他们) partners(合作伙伴) from() Otto(Otto) von(von) Guericke(Guericke) University(大学) Magdeburg(Magdeburg).(.) Engineers(工程师) there(那里) developed(开发) a(一个) controller(控制器) that(that) helped(帮助) to(to) automate(自动化) the complex(复杂),(,) repeated(重复) sequence(序列) of(of) scanning(扫描) the sample(样品).(.) "An("An) atomic force(原子力) microscope(显微镜) works(工作) a(a) bit(有点) like() a(a) record(唱片) player(参与者),"(,") says() Wagner(瓦格纳).(.) "(")The tip(尖端) moves(移动) across(across) the sample(样品) and() pieces(拼接) together(一起) a(a) complete(完整) image(图像) of(of) the surface(表面).(.) In(In) previous(先前) scanning(扫描) quantum(量子) dot() microscopy(显微镜) work(工作),(,) however(然而),(,) we(我们) had to(不得不) move(移动) to(to) an(一个) individual(单个) site(位点) on(on) the sample(样品),(,) measure(测量) a(一个) spectrum(光谱),(,) move(移动) to(to) the next() site(位置),(,) measure(测量) another() spectrum(光谱),(,) and() so(so) on,(on,) in order to(为了) combine(组合) these(这些) measurements(测量) into(into) a(a) single(单个) image(图像).(.) With(With) the Magdeburg(格德堡) engineers(工程师)'(') controller(控制器),(,) we(我们) can(可以) now(现在) simply(简单地) scan(扫描) the whole(整个) surface(表面),(,) just(just) like(一样) using(使用) a(a) normal(普通) atomic force(原子力) microscope(显微镜).(.) While(虽然) it() used(过去) to(to) take(take) us(我们) 5-6(5-6) hours(小时) for(for) a(a) single(单个) molecule(分子),(,) we(we) can(可以) now(现在) image(成像) sample(样品) areas(区域) with(with) hundreds(数百) of(of) molecules(分子) in(in) just(just) one(one) hour(小时)."(.")
There() are(are) some(一些) disadvantages(缺点) as well(),(,) however(然而).(.) Preparing(准备) the measurements(测量) takes(花费) a(a) lot(大量) of(of) time(时间) and() effort(精力).(.) The molecule(分子) serving as(充当) the quantum(量子) dot() for(for) the measurement(测量) has(has) to(to) be(be) attached(连接) to(to) the tip(尖端) beforehand(事先)()and() this() is(is) only(只能) possible(可能) in(in) a(a) vacuum(真空) at(at) low temperatures(低温).(.) In(In) contrast(),(,) normal(普通) atomic force(原子力) microscopes(显微镜) also() work(工作) at(at) room temperature(室温),(,) with(with) no() need() for(for) a(a) vacuum(真空) or() complicated(复杂) preparations(制剂).(.)
And() yet(然而),(,) Prof(教授) .(.) Stefan(Stefan) Tautz(PGI-3),(,) director(主任) at(at) PGI-3,(PGI-3,) is(is) optimistic(乐观):(:) "(")This() does(does) not() have to(不得不) limit(限制) our(我们) options(选择).(.) Our(我们) method(方法) is() still(仍然) new(新的),(,) and() we(我们) are(are) excited(兴奋) for(for) the first(第一) projects(项目) so(因此) we(我们) can(可以) show(展示) what(what) it() can() really(真正) do."(do.")
There() are(are) many(许多) fields(领域) of(of) application(应用) for(for) quantum(量子) dot() microscopy(显微镜).(.) Semiconductor(半导体) electronics(电子产品) is(is) pushing(推动) scale(规模) boundaries(边界) in(in) areas(领域) where(where) a(一个) single(单一) atom(原子) can(可以) make(make) a(a) difference(影响) for(for) functionality(功能).(.) Electrostatic interaction(静电相互作用) also() plays() an(an) important(重要) role(作用) in(in) other(其他) functional materials(功能材料),(,) such(such) as() catalysts(催化剂).(.) The characterization(表征) of(of) biomolecules(生物分子) is() another(另一种) avenue(途径).(.) Thanks to(由于) the comparatively(相对) large() distance(距离) between(between) the tip(尖端) and() the sample(样品),(,) the method(方法) is(is) also() suitable(适用) for(for) rough surfaces(粗糙表面)()such as(例如) the surface(表面) of(of) DNA(DNA) molecules(分子),(,) with(with) their() characteristic(特有的) 3-D(3-D) structure(结构).(.)

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