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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
量子物理学 5193
Decay(衰变) is() relentless(无情) in(in) the macroscopic(宏观) world(世界):(:) Broken(破碎) objects(物体) do(do) not(不能) fit(适合) themselves(自己) back(back) together(together) again().(.) However(然而),(,) other(其他) laws(定律) are() valid(有效) in(in) the quantum(量子) world(世界):(:) New(新的) research(研究) shows(表明) that(that) so-(so-)called(称为) quasiparticles(准粒子) can(可以) decay(衰变) and() reorganize(重组) themselves(自己) again(再次) and() are(are) thus(因此) become(变得) virtually(几乎) immortal(不朽).(.) These(这些) are() good(良好) prospects(前景) for(for) the development(开发) of(of) durable(耐用) data(数据) memories(存储器).(.)
As(As) the saying() goes(),(,) nothing(没有) lasts(持续) forever().(.) The laws(定律) of(of) physics(物理) confirm(证实) this(这一):(:) On(On) our(我们) planet(星球),(,) all(所有) processes(过程) increase(增加) entropy(),(,) thus(从而) molecular(分子) disorder(紊乱).(.) For example(例如),(,) a(a) broken() glass(玻璃) would(would) never(永远不) put(put) itself(本身) back(back) together(一起) again(再次).(.)
Theoretical(理论) physicists(物理学家) at(at) the Technical University(工业大学) of(of) Munich(慕尼黑) (TUM)((TUM)) and() the Max(马克) Planck(普朗克) Institute(研究所) for(for) the Physics(物理) of(of) Complex(复杂) Systems(系统) have(have) discovered(发现) that(that) things(东西) which(which) seem(似乎) inconceivable(不可思议的) in(in) the everyday(日常) world(世界) are() possible(可能) on(on) a(a) microscopic(微观) level(层面).(.)
"(")Until now(到目前为止),(,) the assumption(假设) was(was) that(that) quasiparticles(准粒子) in(in) interacting(相互作用) quantum(量子) systems(系统中) decay(衰减) after(after) a(a) certain(一定) time(时间).(.) We(我们) now(现在) know(知道) that(that) the opposite(相反) is() the case(情况):(:) Strong(强烈) interactions(相互作用) can(可以) even(甚至) stop(阻止) decay(衰变) entirely(完全),"(,") explains(解释说) Frank(坦克) Pollmann(Pollmann),(,) Professor(教授) for(for) Theoretical(理论) Solid-State(固态) Physics(物理) at(at) the TUM(TUM) .(.) Collective(集体) lattice vibrations(晶格振动) in(in) crystals(晶体),(,) so-(so-)called(称为) phonons(声子),(,) are(are) one(一个) example(例子) of(of) such(这样) quasiparticles(准粒子).(.)
The concept(概念) of(of) quasiparticles(准粒子) was() coined(创造) by() the physicist(物理学家) and() Nobel(诺贝尔) prize() winner(获得者) Lev(Lev) Davidovich(Davidovich) Landau(马车).(.) He() used() it() to(to) describe(描述) collective(集体) states(状态) of(of) lots(许多) of(of) particles(粒子) or rather(确切地说) their(它们) interactions(相互作用) due to(由于) electrical(电力) or(或者) magnetic forces(磁力).(.) Due to(由于) this(这种) interaction(相互作用),(,) several(几个) particles(粒子) act(act) like() one(一个) single(单一) one(one).(.)
Numeric(数字) methods(方法) open() up(up) new(新的) perspectives(视角)
Up(Up) until now(到目前为止),(,) it() wasn(还没)'t('t) known(为止) in(in) detail(详细) which(which) processes(过程) influence(影响) the fate(命运) of(of) these(这些) quasiparticles(准粒子) in(in) interacting(相互作用) systems(系统中),"(,") says() Pollmann(波尔曼).(.) "It("It) is(is) only() now(现在) that(that) we(我们) possess(具有) numerical methods(数值方法) with(with) which(which) we(we) can(能够) calculate(计算) complex(复杂) interactions(相互作用) as well as(以及) computers(计算机) with(with) a(a) performance(性能) which(which) is(is) high() enough(足以) to(to) solve(解决) these(这些) equations(方程)."(.")
"(")The result(结果) of(of) the elaborate(精心) simulation(模拟):(:) Admittedly(可否认),(,) quasiparticles(准粒子) do(确实) decay(衰变),(,) however() new(新的),(,) identical(相同) particle(粒子) entities(实体) emerge(浮现) from() the debris(碎片),"(,") says() the lead(lead) author(作者),(,) Ruben(鲁本) Verresen(Verresen).(.) "If("If) this(这种) decay(衰变) proceeds(进行) very(非常) quickly(很快),(,) an(an) inverse() reaction(反作用) will() occur(发生) after(after) a(a) certain(一定) time(时间) and() the debris(碎片) will() converge(收敛) again(再次).(.) This(这个) process(过程) can(可以) recur(复发) endlessly(无休止) and(并且) a(a) sustained(持续) oscillation(振荡) between(between) decay(衰退) and() rebirth(重生) emerges(出现)."(.")
From() a(一种) physical(物理) point(角度) of(of) view(),(,) this(这种) oscillation(振荡) is() a(a) wave() which(which) is() transformed(转化) into(into) matter(物质),(,) which(which),(,) according to(根据) quantum(量子) mechanical(力学) wave()-()particle() duality(二象性),(,) is(is) possible(可能).(.) Therefore(因此),(,) the immortal(不朽) quasiparticles(准粒子) do(do) not() transgress(违反) the second law of thermodynamics(热力学第二定律).(.) Their(它们) entropy() remains(仍然) constant(不变),(,) decay(衰变) has(has) been(been) stopped(停止).(.)
The reality(现实) check(检查)
The discovery(发现) also() explains(解释了) phenomena(现象) which(which) were(were) baffling(困惑) until now(直到现在).(.) Experimental(实验) physicists(物理学家) had(had) measured(测得) that(that) the magnetic(磁性) compound(化合物) Ba3CoSB2O9(Ba3CoSB2O9) is(is) astonishingly(非常) stable(稳定).(.) Magnetic(磁性) quasiparticles(准粒子),(,) magnons(magnons),(,) are(are) responsible(负责) for(for) it() .(.) Other(其他) quasiparticles(准粒子),(,) rotons(旋子),(,) ensure(确保) that(that) helium(氦气) which(which) is(is) a(a) gas(气体) on(on) the earth(地球)'s('s) surface(表面) becomes(变为) a(a) liquid(液体) at(at) absolute zero(绝对零度) which(which) can(可以) flow(流动) unrestricted(受限制).(.)
"(")Our(我们) work(工作) is() purely() basic research(基础研究),"(,") emphasizes(强调) Pollmann(波尔曼).(.) However(然而),(,) it() is(is) perfectly(完全) possible(可能) that(that) one(one) day() the results(结果) will(will) even(甚至) allow(允许) for(for) applications(应用),(,) for example(例如) the construction(构建) of(of) durable(耐用) data(数据) memories(存储器) for(for) future(未来) quantum(量子) computers(计算机).(.)

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