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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
量子物理学 12553
As(As) mysterious(神秘) as(as) the Italian(意大利) scientist(科学家) for(for) which(which) it() is() named(命名),(,) the Majorana(马约拉纳) particle(粒子) is(is) one(之一) of(of) the most() compelling(引人注目) quests(任务) in(in) physics(物理学).(.)
Its(它的) fame(名声) stems from(源于) its(它的) strange(奇特) properties(特性)—it(—it) is() the only(唯一) particle(粒子) that() is() its(它的) own(自己) antiparticle(反粒子)()and(并且) from(from) its(它的) potential(潜力) to(to) be(be) harnessed() for(for) future(未来) quantum(量子) computing(计算).(.)
In(In) recent(近年) years(),(,) a(a) handful(少数) of(of) groups(团体) including(包括) a(a) team(团队) at(at) Princeton(普林斯顿大学) have(have) reported(报道) finding(找到) the Majorana(马约拉纳) in(in) various(各种) materials(材料),(,) but() the challenge(挑战) is(is) how(如何) to(to) manipulate(操纵) it() for(for) quantum(量子) computation(计算).(.)
In(In) a(一种) new() study(研究) published(发表) this(这种) week(),(,) the Princeton(普林斯顿大学) team(小组) reports(报道) a(一项) way(方法) to(to) control(控制) Majorana(马约拉纳) quasiparticles(准粒子) in(in) a(a) setting(设置) that(that) also() makes(使得) them(它们) more(更加) robust(稳健).(.) The setting(环境)()which(which) combines(结合了) a(一种) superconductor(超导体) and() an(an) exotic(外来) material(材料) called(称为) a(a) topological(拓扑) insulator(绝缘体)()makes(使) Majoranas(Majoranas) especially(特别) resilient(有弹性) against(against) destruction(破坏) by(by) heat(热量) or() vibrations(振动) from(from) the outside(外部) environment(环境).(.) What(What) is() more(),(,) the team(团队) demonstrated(展示) a(一种) way(方法) to(to) turn(打开) on(on) or() off(off) the Majorana(马约拉纳) using(使用) small() magnets(磁铁) integrated(集成) into(into) the device(设备).(.) The report(报告) appeared(出现) in(in) the journal(杂志) Science(科学).(.)
"(")With(With) this(这项) new() study(研究) we(我们) now(现在) have() a(一种) new() way(方法) to(to) engineer(设计) Majorana(马约拉纳) quasiparticles(准粒子) in(in) materials(材料),"(,") said() Ali(Ali) Yazdani(1909),(,) Class() of(of) 1909(1909) Professor(教授) of(of) Physics(物理学) and() senior(资深) author(作者) on(on) the study(研究).(.) "We("We) can(可以) verify(验证) their(它们) existence(存在) by(通过) imaging(成像) them(它们) and() we(我们) can(可以) characterize(表征) their(它们) predicted(预测) properties(属性)."(.")
The Majorana(马约拉纳) is(is) named(命名) for(for) physicist(物理学家) Ettore(Ettore) Majorana(马约拉纳),(,) who(who) predicted(预测) the existence(存在) of(of) the particle(粒子) in(in) 1937(1937) just(仅仅) a(a) year() before(before) mysteriously(神秘) disappearing(消失) during(during) a(a) ferry() trip() off(off) the Italian(意大利) coast(海岸).(.) Building(建立) on(on) the same(同一) logic(逻辑) with(with) which(which) physicist(物理学家) Paul(保罗) Dirac(狄拉克) predicted(预测) in(in) 1928(1928) that(that) the electron(电子) must(必须) have(具有) an(一个) antiparticle(反粒子),(,) later(后来) identified(确定) as(as) the positron(正电子),(,) Majorana(马约拉纳) theorized(理论上) the existence(存在) of(of) a(a) particle(粒子) that(that) is() its() own(自己) antiparticle(反粒子).(.)
Typically(通常) when(when) matter(物质) and(并且) antimatter(反物质) come together(聚集),(,) they(它们) annihilate(湮灭) each other(彼此) in(in) a(a) violent(强烈) release(释放) of(of) energy(能量),(,) but(但是) the Majoranas(Majoranas),(,) when(when) they(它们) appear(出现) as(as) pairs(成对) each(每个) at(at) either(任一) end() of(of) specially(特殊) designed(设计) wires(电线),(,) can(可以) be(be) relatively(相对) stable(稳定) and() interact(相互作用) weakly() with(with) their() environment(环境).(.) The pairs() enable(能够) the storing(存储) of(of) quantum(量子) information(信息) at(at) two(两个) distinct(不同) locations(位置),(,) making(使) them(它们) relatively(相对) robust(稳健) against(对抗) disturbance(干扰) because(因为) to(to) change(改变) the quantum state(量子状态) requires(需要) operations(操作) at(at) both(同时) ends(两端) of(of) the wire(线) at the same time(同时).(.)
This(这种) capability(能力) has() captivated(迷住) technologists(技术专家) who(who) envision(设想) a(a) way(方法) to(to) make(make) quantum(量子) bits(比特)()the units(单位) of(of) quantum(量子) computing(计算)()that(that) are(are) more() robust(强大) than(than) current(当前) approaches(方法).(.) Quantum(量子) systems(系统) are() prized(珍视) for(for) their(它们) potential(潜力) to(to) tackle(解决) problems(问题) impossible(不可能) to(to) solve(解决) with(with) today(当今)'s('s) computers(计算机),(,) but() they() require(需要) maintaining(维持) a(一种) fragile(脆弱) state(状态) called(称为) superposition(叠加),(,) which(which) if(如果) disrupted(中断),(,) can(可能) result(导致) in(in) system(系统) failures(故障).(.)
A(A) Majorana(马约拉纳)-()based(基于) quantum(量子) computer(计算机) would() store(存储) information(信息) in(in) pairs(成对) of(of) particles(粒子) and() perform(执行) computation(计算) by(通过) braiding(编织) them(它们) around(around) each other(彼此).(.) The results(结果) of(of) computation(计算) would() be(be) determined(确定) by(通过) annihilation(湮灭) of(of) Majoranas(Majoranas) with(with) each other(彼此),(,) which(which) can(可能) result(导致) in(in) either() the appearance(出现) of(of) an(an) electron(电子) ((()detected(检测) by(通过) its() charge(电荷))()) or(or) nothing(没有),(,) depending(取决于) on(on) how(how) the pair() of(of) Majoranas(Majoranas) have(have) been(been) braided(编织).(.) The probabilistic(概率) outcome(结果) of(of) the Majorana(马约拉纳) pair() annihilation(湮灭) underlies(基础) its() use() for(for) quantum(量子) computation(计算).(.)
The challenge(挑战) is(is) how(如何) to(to) create(创建) and() easily(轻松) control(控制) Majoranas(Majoranas).(.) One(之一) of(of) the places(地方) they(它们) can(可以) exist(存在) is() at(at) the ends(末端) of(of) a(a) single()-()atom(原子)-()thick() chain() of(of) magnetic() atoms(原子) on(on) a(a) superconducting(超导) bed().(.) In(In) 2014,(2014,) reporting(报道) in(in) Science(科学),(,) Yazdani(Yazdani) and() collaborators(合作者) used(使用) a(一个) scanning(扫描) tunneling(隧道) microscope(显微镜) (STM),((STM),) in(in) which(其中) a(a) tip(尖端) is() dragged() over(over) atoms(原子) to(to) reveal(显示) the presence(存在) of(of) quasiparticles(准粒子),(,) to(to) find(找到) Majoranas(Majoranas) at(at) both(both) ends(两端) of(of) a(a) chain() of(of) iron() atoms(原子) resting(休息) on(on) the surface(表面) of(of) a(a) superconductor(超导体).(.)
The team(团队) went(继续) on(on) to(to) detect(探测) the Majorana(马约拉纳)'s('s) quantum(量子) "(")spin(自旋),"(,") a(一种) property(属性) shared(共享) by() electrons(电子) and() other(其他) subatomic(亚原子) particles(粒子).(.) In(In) a(一个) report(报告) published(发表) in(in) Science(科学) in(in) 2017,(2017,) the team(团队) stated(表示) that() the Majorana(马约拉纳)'s('s) spin(自旋) property(属性) is() a(a) unique(独特) signal(信号) with(with) which(which) to(to) determine(确定) that(that) a(a) detected(检测到) quasiparticle(准粒子) is() indeed(确实) a(a) Majorana(马约拉纳).(.)
In(In) this(这项) latest(最新) study(研究),(,) the team(团队) explored(探索) another(另一个) predicted(预测) place(位置) for(for) finding(发现) Majoranas(Majoranas):(:) in(in) the channel(通道) that() forms(形成) at(at) the edge(边缘) of(of) a(a) topological(拓扑) insulator(绝缘体) when(when) it() is(is) placed(放置) in(in) contact(接触) with(with) a(a) superconductor(超导体).(.) Superconductors(超导体) are() materials(材料) in(in) which(which) electrons(电子) can(能够) travel() without() resistance(阻力),(,) and() topological(拓扑) insulators(绝缘体) are() materials(材料) in(in) which(which) electrons(电子) flow(流动) only() along(along) the edges(边缘).(.)
The theory(理论) predicts(预测) that() Majorana(马约拉纳) quasiparticles(准粒子) can(可以) form(形成) at(at) the edge(边缘) of(of) a(a) thin() sheet() of(of) topological(拓扑) insulator(绝缘体) that(that) comes() in(in) contact(接触) with(with) a(a) block() of(of) superconducting material(超导材料).(.) The proximity(接近) of(of) the superconductor(超导体) coaxes(哄着) electrons(电子) to(to) flow(流动) without() resistance(阻力) along(沿着) the topological(拓扑) insulator(绝缘体) edge(边缘),(,) which(which) is() so(非常) thin() that() it() can(可以) be() thought(思想) of(of) as(as) a(a) wire(导线).(.) Since(由于) Majoranas(Majoranas) form(形成) at(at) the end(末端) of(of) wires(电线),(,) it() should(应该) be(be) possible(可以) to(to) make(使) them() appear(出现) by(通过) cutting(切割) the wire(线).(.)
"It("It) was() a(一个) prediction(预测),(,) and() it() was() just(just) sitting(坐在) there(那里) all(all) these(这些) years(年来),"(,") said() Yazdani(兹达尼).(.) "We("We) decided(决定) to(to) explore(探索) how(如何) one(one) could(可能) actually(实际) make(制造) this(这种) structure(结构) because(因为) of(of) its() potential(潜在) to(to) make(使) Majoranas(Majoranas) that(that) would(would) be(be) more(更加) robust(稳固) to(to) material(材料) imperfections(缺陷) and() temperature(温度)."(.")
The team(团队) built() the structure(结构) by(通过) evaporating(蒸发) a(a) thin() sheet(折叠) of(of) bismuth() topological(拓扑) insulator(绝缘体) atop(顶部) a(a) block() of(of) niobium() superconductor(超导体).(.) They(他们) placed(放置) nanometer(纳米)-()sized(大小) magnetic(磁场) memory(记忆) bits() on(on) the structure(结构) to(to) provide(提供) a(a) magnetic field(磁场),(,) which(which) derails(脱轨) the flow(流动) of(of) electrons(电子),(,) producing(产生) the same(相同) effect(效果) as(as) cutting(切割) the wire(线).(.) They(他们) used(使用) STM(STM) to(to) visualize(可视化) the structure(结构).(.)
When(When) using(使用) their(他们) microscope(显微镜) to(to) hunt(狩猎) for(for) the Majorana(马约拉纳),(,) however(然而),(,) the researchers(研究人员) were(were) at(at) first(首先) perplexed(困惑) by(by) what(what) they(他们) saw(看到).(.) Some(有些) of(of) the time(时候) they(他们) saw(看到) the Majorana(马约拉纳) appear(出现),(,) and() other() times(时间) they(他们) could(可能) not() find() it.(it.) After(之后) further(进一步) exploration(探索) they(他们) realized(意识到) that(that) the Majorana(马约拉纳) only(只有) appears(出现) when(when) the small() magnets(磁铁) are() magnetized(磁化) in(in) the direction(方向) parallel(平行) to(to) the direction(方向) of(of) electron flow(电子流) along(沿着) the channel(通道).(.)
"(")When(When) we(我们) began(开始) to(to) characterize(描述) the small() magnets(磁铁),(,) we(我们) realized(意识到) they(它们) are() the control(控制) parameter(参数),"(,") said() Yazdani(兹达尼).(.) "(")The way(方式) the magnetization(磁化) of(of) the bit(bit) is() oriented(方向) determines(决定了) whether(是否) the Majorana(马约拉纳) appears(出现) or(or) not(not).(.) It() is() an(一个) on-(on-)off(off) switch(开关)."(.")
The team(团队) reported(报告) that() the Majorana(马约拉纳) quasiparticle(准粒子) that() forms(形成) in(in) this() system(系统) is(is) quite(非常) robust(稳健) because(因为) it() occurs(发生) at(at) energies(能量) that() are(are) distinct(不同) from(from) the other(other) quasiparticles(准粒子) that(that) can(可能) exist(存在) in(in) the system(系统).(.) The robustness(稳健性) also() stems from(源于) its() formation(形成) in(in) a(a) topological(拓扑)-()edge(边缘) mode(模式),(,) which(which) is(is) inherently(本身就) resistant() to(to) disruption(干扰).(.) Topological(拓扑) materials(材料) derive(导出) their(它们) name(名称) from(from) the branch(分支) of(of) mathematics(数学) that(that) describes(描述了) how(如何) objects(物体) can(能够) be(be) deformed(变形) by(通过) stretching(拉伸) or() bending(弯曲).(.) Electrons(电子) flowing(流动) in(in) a(a) topological(拓扑) material(材料) thus(因此) will() continue(继续) moving(移动) around(围绕) any(任何) dents(凹痕) or() imperfections(缺陷).(.)

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