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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
A(一个) new(新的) mathematical model(数学模型) that(that) predicts(预测) which(which) choices(选择) people(人们) will() make(做出) in(in) the Iowa(爱荷华州) Gambling(赌博) Task(任务),(,) a(a) task(任务) used() for(for) the past(过去) 25(25) years(年来) to(to) study(研究) decision-making(决策),(,) outperforms(优于) previously(以前) developed(开发) models(模型).(.) Romain(罗曼) Ligneul(Ligneul) of(of) the Champalimaud(Champalimaud) Center(中心) for(for) the Unknown(未知) in(in) Portugal(葡萄牙) presents(介绍) this(这项) research(研究) in(in) PLOS(PLOS) Computational(计算) Biology(生物学).(.)
The Iowa(爱荷华州) Gambling(赌博) Task(任务) presents(提供) a(一个) subject(主题) with(with) four(四个) virtual(虚拟) card(卡片) decks(甲板),(,) each(每个) containing(包含) a(a) different(不同) mix(组合) of(of) cards(卡片) that(that) can(可以) win() or(或者) lose(丢失) fake() money().(.) Without(没有) being(being) told() which(which) decks(甲板) are() more() valuable(有价值),(,) the subject(受试) then() picks(挑选) cards() from() the decks() as(as) they(它们) please().(.) Most(大多数) healthy(健康) people() gradually(逐渐) learn() which(which) decks(套牌) are(are) more() valuable(有价值) and() choose(选择) to(to) pick(挑选) cards(卡片) only() from() those() decks(套牌).(.)
Earlier(早期) studies(研究) have(have) used(使用) Iowa(爱荷华州) Gambling(赌博) Task(任务) data(数据) to(to) build(建立) mathematical models(数学模型) that(that) can(可以) predict(预测) people(人们)'s('s) card()-()picking(选择) choices(选择).(.) However(然而),(,) building(构建) such(这样) models(模型) is(is) computationally(计算) challenging(具有挑战性),(,) and(并且) previously(先前) developed(开发) models(模型) do(do) not() account(考虑) for(for) the exploratory(探索) strategies(策略) people(人们) use(使用) in(in) the task(任务).(.)
In(In) reviewing(回顾) previously(以前) collected(收集) data(数据) from() 500(500) subjects(受试者),(,) Ligneul(Ligneul) found(发现) that(that) healthy(健康) people() tend to(倾向于) cycle(循环) through(through) the four(四个) decks(甲板上) and() pick(挑选) one(one) card() from() each(每个),(,) especially(特别) at(at) the beginning(开始) of(of) the task(任务).(.) He() then(然后) incorporated(纳入) this(这种) behavior(行为),(,) termed(被称为) sequential(顺序) exploration(探索),(,) into(into) a(一个) new(新的) mathematical model(数学模型) that() also() accounts(解释) for(for) the well(well)-()known() reward(奖励)-()maximizing(最大化) behaviors(行为) people(人们) exhibit(表现出) in(in) the task(任务).(.)
Ligneul(Ligneul) found(发现) that(that) his() new() model(模型) outperforms(优于) earlier(早期) models(模型) in(in) predicting(预测) people(人们)'s('s) card()-()picking(选择) choices(选择).(.) He() also() found(发现) that(that) sequential(顺序) exploration(探索) behaviors(行为) seem(似乎) to(to) decline(下降) as(因为) subjects(受试者) get() older(年龄),(,) perhaps(可能) because of(由于) neurological(神经系统) changes(变化) typically(通常) associated(有关) with(with) aging(衰老).(.)
"(")This(这项) study(研究) provides(提供了) a(一种) mathematical(数学) method(方法) to(to) disentangle(解开) our(我们) drive(驱动) to(to) explore(探索) the environment(环境) and(以及) our(我们) drive(动力) to(to) exploit(开发) it,"(it,") Ligneul(Ligneul) says().(.) "It("It) appears(看来) that(that) the balance(平衡) of(of) these() two(两种) drives(驱动器) evolves(演变) with(with) aging(老化)."(.")
The new() model(模型) and() findings(调查结果) could(可以) help(帮助) refine(完善) insights(见解) gleaned(收集) from() the Iowa(爱荷华州) Gambling(赌博) Task(任务).(.) It() could(可以) also() improve(提高) understanding(理解) of(of) learning(学习) and() decision-making(决策) disruptions(中断) that(that) are(are) associated(相关) with(with) aging(衰老) and() various(各种) neuropsychiatric(神经精神) conditions(情况),(,) such as(例如) addiction(成瘾),(,) impulsive(冲动) disorders(疾病),(,) brain injury(脑损伤),(,) and() more(more).(.)

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