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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
地球科学 3982
Since(由于) scientists(科学家们) first(首先) determined(确定) that(that) atmospheric(大气) carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) (CO2)((CO2)) was() significantly(显着) lower(低于) during(during) ice() age(时期) periods(阶段) than(than) warm(温暖) phases(阶段),(,) they(他们) have(have) sought(试图) to(to) discover(发现) why(原因),(,) theorizing(理论化) that(that) it() may(可能) be(be) a(a) function(函数) of(of) ocean(海洋) circulation(环流),(,) sea ice(海冰),(,) iron()-()laden() dust(尘埃) or() temperature(温度).(.)
Yet(然而) no(没有) computer model(计算机模型) based on(基于) existing(现有) evidence(证据) has(has) been(been) able(能够) to(to) explain(解释) why(为什么) CO2(二氧化碳) levels(水平) were(were) as much as(多达) one(之一)-()third() lower(降低) when(when) an(an) ice() age(时代) settled(定居) in.(in.)
A(一项) new() study(研究) published(发表) this() week() in(in) Science(科学) Advances(进展) provides(提供了) compelling(令人信服) evidence(证据) for(for) a(a) solution(解决方案)()the combination(结合) of(of) sea water(海水) temperature variation(温度变化) and() iron() from(from) dust(尘埃) off(off) Southern Hemisphere(南半球) continents(大陆).(.)
"(")Many(许多) of(of) the past(过去) studies(研究) that(that) analyzed(分析) ocean(海洋) temperatures(温度) made(made) the assumption(假设) that(that) ocean(海洋) temperatures(温度) cooled(冷却) at(at) the same(相同) rate(速度) over(over) the entire() globe(全球)()about(大约) 2.5(2.5) degrees() ((()Celsius(摄氏度)),"(),") said() Andreas(Andreas) Schmittner(Schmittner),(,) a(a) climate(气候) scientist(科学家) at(at) Oregon(俄勒冈州) State(状态) University(大学) and() co-(共同)author() on(on) the study(研究).(.) "(")When(When) they(他们) ran(运行) their(他们) models(模型),(,) temperature(温度) thus(因此) accounted() for(for) only() a(a) small amount(少量) of(of) atmospheric(大气) CO2(二氧化碳) decrease(减少).(.)
"We("We) now(现在) know(知道) that(that) the oceans(海洋) cooled(冷却) much() more(more) in(in) some(一些) regions(地区),(,) as much as(多达) five() degrees(程度) (C)((C)) in(in) the mid-latitudes(中纬度).(.) Since(由于) cold water(冷水) has(具有) a(a) higher(更多) degree(程度) of(of) CO2(二氧化碳) solubility(溶解度),(,) it() had() the potential(潜力) to(to) soak(浸泡) up(up) a(a) lot(很多) more(更多) carbon() from() the atmosphere(大气) than(than) past(过去) studies(研究) accounted(解释) for(for)()and(并且) it() realized(实现了) more() of(of) that(that) potential(可能)."(.")
Schmittner(Schmittner) and() his() colleagues(同事) estimate(估计) that(that) colder(较冷) ocean(海洋) temperatures(温度) would() account() for(for) about(about) half(一半) of(of) the decrease(减少) in(in) CO2(二氧化碳) during(during) the last(最后) glacial() maximum()—or(—or) height(高度) of(of) the last(最后) ice age(冰期).(.) Another() third(三分之一) or(or) so,(so,) they(他们) say(),(,) was() likely(可能) caused(造成) by() an(an) increase(增加) in(in) iron()-()laden(载货) dust(粉尘) coming() off(off) the continents(大陆) and() "(")fertilizing(施肥)"(") the surface(表面) of(of) the Southern Ocean(南大洋).(.) An(An) increase(增加) in(in) iron() would() boost(促进) phytoplankton(浮游植物) production(产生),(,) absorbing(吸收) more(更多) carbon() and() depositing(沉积) it() deep(深处) in(in) the ocean(海洋).(.)
The researchers(研究人员)'(') models(模型) suggest(表明) that(that) this(这种) combination(组合) accounts() for(for) more than(以上) three()-()quarters(四分之) of(of) the reduced(减少) amount() of(of) atmospheric(大气) CO2(二氧化碳) during(during) the last() ice() age(时期).(.) During(During) the last(最后) glacial() maximum(最大值),(,) CO2(二氧化碳) levels(水平) were(were) about(about) 180(180) parts(部分) per() million(百万),(,) whereas() levels(水平) in(in) 1800(1800) A(A) .(.) D.—(D.—)just(just) prior(之前) to(to) the Industrial(工业) Revolution(革命)()were(were) at(at) about(about) 280(280) parts(部分) per() million(百万).(.)
Schmittner(Schmittner) said() the remaining(剩余) amount() of(of) reduced(减少) carbon() may(可能) be(be) attributable(归因) to(to) variations(变化) in(in) nutrient(养分) availability(供应) and()/or(/or) ocean(海洋) alkalinity(碱度).(.)
"(")The increase(增加) in(in) iron() likely(可能) resulted(由于) from() ice() scouring(冲刷) the landscape(景观) in(in) Patagonia(巴塔哥尼亚),(,) Australia(澳大利亚) and() New Zealand(新西兰),(,) pulling() iron() out(出来) of(of) the rocks(岩石) and() soil(土壤),"(,") Schmittner(Schmittner) said().(.) "(")Since(由于) it() was() very(非常) cold(寒冷) and() dry(干燥),(,) the iron() would(would) have(have) been(been) picked(选择) up(up) by(by) the wind() and() deposited(沉积) in(in) the ocean(海洋).(.)
"(")Our(我们) three-dimensional model(三维模型) of(of) the global(全球) ocean(海洋) agrees(一致) well(well) with(with) observations(观测) from(from) ocean sediments(海洋沉积物) from(from) the last(最后) glacial(冰川) maximum(最大),(,) giving(使) us(我们) a(a) high() degree(程度) of(of) confidence(信心) in(in) the results(结果)."(.")
The researchers(研究人员) say() that(that) when(when) the Earth(地球) cooled(冷却) during(during) the last() ice() age(时期),(,) the oceans(海洋) naturally(自然) cooled(冷却) as well()()except(除了) near() the polar(极地) regions(地区),(,) which(which) already(已经) were(were) as(as) cold(寒冷) as(as) they(它们) could(可能) get() without(没有) freezing(冻结).(.) During(During) warm(温暖) phases(阶段),(,) the difference(差异) in(in) ocean surface(海洋表面) temperatures(温度) between(between) the high latitudes(高纬度) and() the mid-latitudes(中纬度) was(was) significant(很大).(.)
As(As) warmer(温暖) water() moves(移动) toward() Antarctica(南极洲) and() begins(开始) to(to) cool(冷却),(,) the lost(失去) heat(热量) goes() into(into) the atmosphere(大气层),(,) increasing(增加) the ocean(海洋)'s('s) potential(潜力) to(to) soak(浸泡) up(up) CO2.(CO2.)
"It's("It's) like(一样) when(when) you() take() a(a) beer(啤酒) out of(out of) the refrigerator(冰箱),"(,") Schmittner(Schmittner) said().(.) "As("As) it() warms(变暖),(,) the bubbles(气泡) come out(出来).(.) Carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) is() a(一种) gas(气体),(,) and as() it() can(可以) dissolve(溶解) in(in) water() as well() get(得到) into(into) the ocean(海洋) from() the atmosphere(大气),(,) and() it() is(is) more() soluble(易溶) in(in) colder(较冷) water().(.) But(但是) that(that) process(过程) takes(需要) a(a) while(段时) and() therefore(因此) the ocean(海洋) doesn(没有)'t('t) realize(意识) all(所有) of(of) its() potential(潜力) to(to) take(take) up(up) CO2(二氧化碳) in(in) those(这个) waters(水域) around(周围) Antarctica(南极洲) that(that) fill() much(much) of(of) the deep ocean(深海)."(.")
When(When) the mid-latitude(中纬度) oceans(海洋) began(开始) cooling(冷却),(,) they(它们) began(开始) soaking(吸收) up(up) more(更多) CO2(二氧化碳) from() the atmosphere(大气),(,) and(并且) emitting(排放) less(更少) because(由于) colder(较冷) water() is(is) more() CO2(二氧化碳) soluble(易溶).(.)
"It("It) was() the perfect(完美) combination(组合) that(that) can(可以) explain(解释) almost(几乎) exactly(精确) why(为什么) CO2(二氧化碳) levels(水平) were(were) about(about) one(之一)-()third() lower(降低) during(during) ice() age(年龄) periods(期间),"(,") Schmittner(Schmittner) said().(.)

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