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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
生态 571
Ants(蚂蚁) adjust(调整) their(他们) social(社交) interactions(互动) to(to) accommodate(适应) changes(变化) in(in) population(人口) density(密度),(,) according(根据) to(to) researchers(研究人员) at(at) Penn(宾夕法尼亚) State() and() Georgetown(乔治敦) University(大学).(.) The findings(研究结果) suggest(表明) that() ant() colonies() are(are) capable(能够) of(of) maintaining(维持) their(它们) sophisticated(复杂) social(社会) organization(组织) despite(尽管) potentially(可能) drastic(生巨大) changes(变化) in(in) their(它们) environments(环境).(.)
"(")Ants(蚂蚁) are() among(among) the most() ecologically(生态) successful(成功) groups(群体) in(in) nature(自然界) due(因为) to(to) their(它们) complex(复杂) social(社会) organization(组织),(,) particularly(特别是) their(他们) division(分工) of(of) labor(劳动),(,) including(包括) food(食物) acquisition(获取),"(,") said() David(大卫) Hughes(休斯),(,) associate professor(副教授) of(of) entomology(昆虫学) and() biology(生物学).(.) "(")The survival(生存) of(of) ant() colonies() depends(取决于) on(on) their(他们) ability(能力) to(to) maintain(维持) this(这个) organization(组织).(.) In(In) our(我们) study(研究),(,) we(我们) saw(看到) remarkable(显着) resilience(恢复能力) of(of) ant(ant) colonies() to(to) changes(变化) in(in) population(人口) density(密度).(.) This(这一) finding(发现) helps(有助于) to(to) explain(解释) ants(蚂蚁)'(') evolutionary(进化) success(成功)."(.")
According to(根据) Hughes(休斯),(,) changes(变化) in(in) ant(ant) colony() size(大小) and() population(人口) density(密度) are() natural(自然) occurrences(发生).(.) They(它们) can(可以) increase(增加) as(as) the queen(女王) reproduces(繁殖) and() the colony(群体) grows(生长),(,) and() they(它们) can(可以) decrease(减少) when(when) the colony(群体) decides(决定) to(to) split(分裂) into(into) multiple(多个) nest(巢穴) sites(位点).(.)
"To("To) minimize(尽量减少) potentially(潜在) adverse(不利) effects(影响) due to(由于) changes(变化) in(in) density(密度) and() to(to) maintain(维持) social(社会) balance(平衡),(,) ant(蚂蚁) colonies(殖民地) should() try(尝试) to(to) actively(积极) manage(管理) the rates(速度) of(of) their() interactions(相互作用),"(,") said() Hughes(休斯).(.) "(") Until now(到目前为止),(,) however(然而),(,) few(few) studies(研究) have() investigated(调查) these(这些) phenomena(现象)."(.")
The researchers(研究人员) manipulated(操纵) the population densities(种群密度) of(of) three(三个) colonies(群体) of(of) carpenter(木偶) ants(蚂蚁) by(通过) quadrupling(四倍) the sizes(大小) of(of) their(它们) nest(巢穴) spaces(空间).(.) They(他们) placed(放在) the colonies(殖民地) inside() wooden(木制) camera(相机) boxes() fitted(装有) with(with) infrared(红外) lights() so(这样) they(他们) could(可以) film() the ants(蚂蚁) under(under) natural(自然) dark(黑暗) nesting(筑巢) conditions(条件).(.) The ants(蚂蚁) were(were) able(能够) to(to) leave(离开) the nests(巢穴) at(at) any(any) time(time) to(to) enter(进入) foraging(觅食) areas().(.)
The team(团队) manually(手动) identified(识别) the position(位置) in(in) the nest() of(of) each(每个) ant(蚂蚁) at(at) every() point() in(in) time(时间)()equivalent(相当) to(to) more than(超过) 6.9(6.9) million() data(数据) points()—to(—to) investigate(研究) whether(是否) the increased(增加) nest() space(空间) influenced(影响) the spatial organization(空间组织) of(of) the insects(昆虫).(.) The researchers(研究人员) found(发现) that() the ants(蚂蚁)'(') positions(位置) relative(相对) to(to) the others(他人) was() similar(相似) regardless(无论) of(of) the population(人口) density(密度).(.) When(When) population(人口) density(密度) was() lower(较低),(,) ants(蚂蚁) simply() were(were) separated(分开) further(进一步) in(in) space(空间) from(from) each other(彼此).(.)
Next(),(,) the researchers(研究人员) examined(检查) 3,200(3,200) ant(蚂蚁) interactions(相互作用) to(to) analyze(分析) whether(是否) the increase(增加) in(in) nest(巢穴) space(空间) influenced(影响) their(它们) task(任务) performance(表现)()especially(特别) related(相关) to(to) trophallaxis(trophallaxis),(,) or() the transfer(转移) of(of) foods(食物) from() ant(蚂蚁) to(to) ant(ant).(.) The team(团队)'s('s) results(成绩) appeared(出现) May(5月) 2,(2,) 2019,(2019,) in(in) eLife.(eLife.)
"As("As) a(a) statistician(统计学家),(,) I(I) built(建立) statistical models(统计模型) that(that) captured(捕获) how(如何) individual(个体) ants(蚂蚁) move(移动) within(within) their(他们) nests(巢穴),(,) and() how() and() when(when) they(它们) chose(选择) to(to) engage(参与) in(in) important(重要) social behaviors(社会行为) like() trophallaxis(trophallaxis),"(,") said() Ephraim(Ephraim) Hanks(汉克斯),(,) associate professor(副教授) of(of) statistics(统计学),(,) Penn(宾夕法尼亚) State().(.) "(")These(这些) analyses(分析) helped(有助于) to(to) explain(解释) how(how) ant(蚂蚁) populations(群体) maintained(保持) high levels of(高水平的) community(社区) interactions(互动) even(即使) after(after) their(它们) spatial(空间) environment(环境) was(was) changed(变化)."(.")
Indeed(事实),(,) the team(小组) found(发现) that()()contrary(相反) to(to) its(它的) expectations(预期),(,) which(which) were(were) that(that) ant(蚂蚁) interactions(相互作用) would(would) decrease(降低) with(with) decreasing(减少) population(人口)()ant(蚂蚁) interactions(相互作用) actually(实际上) did(did) not(没有) change(变化) with(with) decreased(减少) density(密度).(.)
"(")Our(我们) results(结果) showcase(展示) the kinds(种类) of(of) behavioral(行为) mechanisms(机制) ant(蚂蚁) colonies(群体) apply(应用) to(to) achieve(实现) social(社会) homeostasis(稳态) in(in) the face(面对) of(of) disturbance(干扰),"(,") said() Hughes(休斯).(.) "(")Specifically(具体而言),(,) ants(蚂蚁) actively(主动) regulate(调节) their() spatial distribution(空间分布) and() interaction(相互作用) behaviors(行为) in(in) a(a) way(方法) that() allows(使) them() to(to) maintain(维持) critical(关键) elements(要素) of(of) their(它们) social(社会) interaction(交往) patterns(模式)()such as(例如) food(食物) and() information(信息) exchange(交换)—in(—in) spite(尽管) of(of) drastic(巨大) changes(变化) in(in) their(它们) environment(环境)."(.")
"(")This(这样) work(工作) shows(表明) that(that) social(社会) species(物种) like() ants(蚂蚁) can(可以) maintain(保持) levels(水平) of(of) social(社会) connection(联系) and() interaction(互动) even(即使) when(when) their(它们) environment(环境) changes(变化) drastically(剧烈),"(,") said() Hanks(汉克斯).(.) "As("As) social(社会) interactions(互动) are() a(a) critical(关键) driver(驱动) of(of) the spread(传播) of(of) infectious disease(传染病),(,) our(我们) work(工作) shows(表明) that(that) changing(变化) spatial(空间) environments(环境),(,) such as(例如) how(how) cities(城市) or() businesses(企业) are(are) laid out(铺平),(,) may(可能) have() little or no(几乎没有) effect(影响) on(on) the spread(传播) of(of) infectious disease(传染病),(,) as() social(社会) species(物种) may(可能) change(改变) their(他们) movement(运动) patterns(模式) to(to) conserve(保护) community(社区) interactions(互动)."(.")

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