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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
地球科学 681
Researchers(研究人员) who(who) took() a(a) closer(仔细) look(观察) at(at) a(a) 1995(1995) tsunami(海啸) in(in) the Gulf(海湾) of(of) Elat(Elat)-()Aqaba(亚喀巴),(,) at(at) the northeastern(东北) tip() of(of) the Red() Sea(),(,) say(表示) that(that) the gulf()'s('s) surrounding(周边) countries(国家) should() prepare(准备) for(for) future(未来) tsunami(海啸) hazards(灾害) in(in) the economically(经济) developing(发展) vital(重要) region(地区).(.)
A(A) team(团队) of(of) scientists(科学家) led(领导) by() Amos(阿莫斯) Salamon(Salamon) of(of) the Geological Survey(地质调查) of(of) Israel(以色列) simulated(模拟) tsunamis(海啸),(,) using(使用) the GeoClaw(GeoClaw) modeling(建模) program(程序),(,) paired(配合) with(with) models(模型) of(of) the magnitude(大小) 7.2(7.2) Nuweiba(Nuweiba) earthquake(地震),(,) which(which) led(led) to(to) the 1995(1995) tsunami(海啸) in(in) the gulf(海湾).(.) They(他们) conclude(结论) in(in) the journal() Seismological(地震) Research(研究) Letters(快报) that(that) the tsunami(海啸) simulations(模拟) correspond(对应) well(well) with(with) data(数据) on(on) wave height(波高),(,) inundation(洪水) and() damage(破坏) reported(报告) from(from) the actual(实际) small() tsunami(海啸).(.)
Four(四个) countries(国家)()Egypt(埃及),(,) Saudi Arabia(沙特阿拉伯),(,) Jordan(约旦) and() Israel(以色列)()border(接壤) the Gulf() of(of) Eliat(利亚)-()Aqaba(亚喀巴).(.) Nuweiba(努韦巴) is() an(an) Egyptian(埃及) coastal(沿海) town(城镇) on(on) the gulf(海湾).(.) The tsunami(海啸) reached(达到) its(它的) greatest() wave(波浪) height(高度)()three() to(to) four() meters() at(at) the Nuweiba(努韦) harbor(港口) ()and() brought() the most() serious(严重) damage(破坏) to(to) a(a) platform(平台) there(那里),(,) with(with) some(一些) minor(轻微) damage(破坏) also() occurring(发生) to(to) local(当地) nomad(游牧) dwellings(民居) along(along) the coast(沿海) and() to(to) the Aqaba(亚喀巴) Port(港口).(.)
Since() 1995,(1995,) the Gulf() of(of) Elat(Elat)-()Aqaba(亚喀巴) has(具有) grown(生长) in(in) economic(经济) importance(重要性) for(for) all(所有) four(四个) countries(国家),(,) supporting(支持) shipping(航运) ports(港口),(,) tourism(旅游业) and() potentially(潜在) large(大型) regional(区域) water() and() electrical() projects(项目) such(such) as() Jordan(约旦)'s('s) proposed(提议) Red() Sea(海水)-()Dead() Sea Water(海水) Conveyance() ((()sometimes(有时) called(称为) the "(")Peace() Conduit(管道)")(")) pipeline(管道).(.)
The tsunami(海啸) was() a(a) surprise() at(at) the time(time),(,) happening(发生) in(in) a(a) closed(封闭) gulf(海湾) far() away from(离开) the open(开阔) ocean(海洋),(,) but() has(has) been(been) mostly(大部分) forgotten(遗忘),(,) said() Salamon(萨拉蒙).(.) "(")People(人们) remember(记得) the earthquake(地震) and() the shaking() rather than(而不) the tsunami(海啸).(.) It() went() '(')below(below) the radar(雷达),'(,') and() was() left(剩下) hidden(隐藏) in(in) reports(报告) and() papers(文件)."(.")
The 1995(1995) earthquake(地震) took(took) place(发生) along(along) the Dead() Sea() Transform(变换),(,) the fault(断层) system(系统) that() runs(延伸) from() southeastern(东南部) Turkey(土耳其) to(to) the southern() tip() of(of) the Sinai(西奈) Peninsula(半岛).(.) "We("We) have() already(已经) learned(了解) that(that) earthquakes(地震) along(along) the fault(断层) system(系统) have(have) the potential(可能) to(to) generate(产生) tsunamis(海啸) in(in) the Eastern() Mediterranean(地中海) through(通过) seismogenic(seismogenic) submarine(潜艇) landslides(滑坡),(,) but() now(现在) we(我们) realize(意识) that(that) it() is(is) also() capable(能够) of(of) generating(产生) tsunamis(海啸) in(in) the gulf(海湾) by(通过) co-(共同)seismic() deformation(变形) as well as(以及) by(by) submarine(海底) landslides(滑坡),"(,") Salamon(萨拉蒙) said().(.)
The motion(运动) along(沿着) the fault(断层) that(that) ruptured(断裂) in(in) the 1995(1995) Nuweiba(努韦巴) earthquake(地震) was() predominantly(主要) strike()-()slip(滑过),(,) where(where) rocks(岩石) slide() past(过去) each(相互) other(other) in(in) a(a) horizontal(水平) fashion(方式) along(along) a(a) vertical(垂直) fracture(裂缝).(.) The most() damaging(破坏性) tsunamis(海啸) around(around) the globe(全球) have() been(been) associated() with(with) thrust(冲断层) faults(故障),(,) where(where) one(one) slab() of(of) crust(地壳) rides() over(over) the top(顶部) of(of) another(另一) slab(平板).(.) But(但是) researchers(研究人员) have(have) noted(注意到) several() tsunamis(海啸) related(相关) to(to) strike()-()slip() faults(断层) in(in) recent(近年) years(),(,) including(包括) the magnitude() 7.5(7.5) Palu(Palu) earthquake(地震) in(in) Indonesia(印度尼西亚) last year(去年),(,) even though(尽管) these(这些) ruptures(断裂) do(do) not() tend to(倾向于) produce(产生) as(as) much(much) vertical(垂直) upheaval(动荡) as(as) a(a) thrust(冲断层) fault(故障).(.)
"In("In) general(一般) the concept(概念) is() that(that) strike()-()slip() earthquakes(地震) do(确实) not() generate(产生) significant(明显) tsunamis(海啸),(,) and() we(我们) thought(认为) it() is(is) of(of) great(重要) importance(重要性) to(to) show(表明) that(that) we(我们) do(do) have() this(这种),"(,") Salamon(萨拉蒙) said().(.) "(")There(There) was(was) relatively(相对较) small() and() limited(有限) damage(伤害) here(这里) from(from) this(这一) tsunami(海啸),(,) but() we(我们) should() not() ignore(忽视) that(that) this() unique(独特) seismotectonic(seismotectonic) settings(背景) includes(包括) active(主动) normal(正常) faults(断层) along(along) the gulf(海湾)'s('s) shoulders(肩部) as well as(以及) steep(陡峭) submarine(海底) slopes(斜坡) along(along) which(which) we(我们) have() identified(发现) fresh(新鲜) scars(疤痕) that(that) may(可能) have(have) evidence(证据) of(of) past(过去) tsunamis(海啸)."(.")
One(之一) of(of) the most() important(重要) pieces() of(of) information(信息) from(from) the 1995(1995) event(事件),(,) which(which) allowed(允许) the researchers(研究人员) to(to) perform(进行) their(它们) simulations(模拟),(,) was() a(a) 1995(1995) mareogram(mareogram),(,) or() tidal(潮汐) gauge(规范) reading(读数),(,) that(that) Salamon(Salamon)'s('s) student(学生) Eran(Eran) Frucht(Frucht) discovered(发现).(.) These(这些) data(数据) gave(提供了) them(他们) a(一种) way(方法) to(to) judge(判断) the accuracy(准确性) of(of) their(它们) simulations(模拟).(.) The researchers(研究人员) concluded(结论),(,) for instance(例如),(,) that(that) the peak(波峰) three() to(to) four()-()meter wave(米波) height(高度) in(in) Nuweiba(努韦巴) Harbor(港口) may(可能) have(have) been(been) a(a) local(局部) phenomenon(现象) affected(影响) by(by) the shape(形状) of(of) the harbor() or() by(by) a(a) nearby(附近) underwater(水下) landslide(滑坡).(.)
Salamon(Salamon) and() his() colleagues(同事) now(现在) are(are) conducting(进行) a(a) larger(更大) scale(规模) earthquake(地震) and() tsunami(海啸) hazard(灾害) evaluation(评估) for(for) the entire(整个) Gulf() of(of) Elat(Elat)-()Aqaba(亚喀巴) region(地区).(.) The evaluation(评估) is(is) particularly(尤为) important(重要) because(因为) there(there) are(are) few(few) historical(历史) records(记录) in(in) the area(地区) on(on) past(过去) tsunami(海啸) size(规模) and() frequency(频率),(,) to(to) guide(指导) future(未来) estimates(估算).(.)
The worst(最糟糕) case(情况) scenario(情景),(,) said() Salamon(萨拉蒙),(,) would(would) be(be) an(an) earthquake(地震) on(on) a(a) fault(断层) that(that) crosses(穿过) from() the land(地面) into(into) the gulf(海湾),(,) which(which) could(可能) produce(产生) severe(严重) ground() shaking() in(in) the surrounding(周围) cities(城市),(,) submarine(海底) landslides(山体滑坡) and() subsidence(下沉) of(of) the coastline(海岸线) that(that) amplifies(放大) inundation(泛滥) from() a(a) tsunami(海啸).(.)
Salamon(萨拉蒙) said(表示) that(that) the hazard(危害) evaluation(评估) would() give(使) scientists(科学家) in(in) all(所有) four(四个) countries(国家) surrounding(周边) the gulf(海湾) a(a) better(更好地) understanding(了解) on(on) whether(是否) to(to) expect(期望) this(这种) worst-case(最坏情况) scenario(情景).(.) "We("We) thought(认为) that(that) if(如果) we(我们) do(do) this kind(这种) of(of) research(研究),(,) it() would(would) be(be) relevant(相关) for(for) our(我们) neighbors(邻居) as well()."(.")

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