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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
The cell(细胞) contains(含有) transcripts(转录物) of(of) genetic material(遗传物质),(,) which(which) migrate(迁移) from() the cell nucleus(细胞核) to(to) another(另一) part(部分) of(of) the cell(细胞).(.) This(这种) movement(运动) protects(保护) the genetic(遗传) transcripts(转录本) from(from) the recruitment(招募) of(of) "(")spliceosomes(剪接体)."(.") If(如果) this(这种) protection(保护) does(does) not() happen(发生),(,) the entire(整个) cell(细胞) is(is) in(in) danger(危险),(,) meaning(意味) that(that) cancer(癌症) and() neurodegenerative(神经退行性) diseases(疾病) can() develop(发展).(.) Researchers(研究人员) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) ()ttingen(廷根) and() the University(大学) Medicine(医学) Centre(中心) ()ttingen(ttingen) have(have) demonstrated(证明了) the underlying(潜在) mechanism(机制) in(in) the cell(细胞).(.) The results(结果) were(were) published(发表) in(in) the journal(杂志) Cell(细胞) Reports(报告).(.)
Human(人体) cells(细胞) are(are) made(made) up(up) of(of) the following(以下):(:) a(a) cell nucleus(细胞核),(,) which(which) contains(含有) the genetic material(遗传物质) in(in) the form(形式) of(of) DNA;(DNA;) and(以及) the cytoplasm(细胞质),(,) where(where) proteins(蛋白质) are(are) built().(.) In(In) the cell nucleus(细胞核),(,) the DNA(DNA) that(that) contains(含有) the blueprint(蓝图) for(for) the organism(生物) is() rewritten(重写) into(into) another(另一种) form(形式),(,) messenger(信使) RNA,(RNA,) in(in) order(指令) to(to) transport(传输) the information(信息) so(so) that(that) these(这些) instructions(说明) can() be(be) used(用于) for(for) protein(蛋白质) production(生产).(.) Separated(分开) from(from) the original(原始) transcript(转录物),(,) the proteins(蛋白质) can(可以) then(然后) be(be) produced(产生) in(in) the cytoplasm(细胞质中).(.) The separation(分离) is(is) important(重要) because(因为) the messenger(信使) RNA(RNA) is(is) not(不能) immediately(立即) usable(使用);(;) rather(相反),(,) a(一种) precursor(前体) ((()pre(pre)-()messenger(信使) RNA)(RNA)) has() to(to) be(be) produced(产生) that(that) still() contains() areas(区域) that(that) have to(必须) be(be) removed(除去) before(before) the messenger(信使) RNA(RNA) reaches(到达) the cytoplasm(细胞质).(.) If(如果) these(这些) areas(区域) are() not(没有) removed(除去) beforehand(事先),(,) then() shortened(缩短) or() dysfunctional(功能失调) proteins(蛋白质) are(are) produced(产生),(,) which(which) is(is) dangerous(危险) for(for) the cell(细胞).(.)
The molecular(分子) machinery(机制) that(that) cuts() these(这些) areas(区域) out(out) of(of) the messenger(信使) RNA(RNA) are() the spliceosomes(剪接体).(.) They(它们) contain(含有) proteins(蛋白质) and() another(另一种) type(类型) of(of) transcripts(转录物) of(of) the DNA,(DNA,) the snRNA.(snRNA.) The snRNA(snRNA) is() not() translated(转化为) into(into) proteins(蛋白质) like() messenger(信使) RNA,(RNA,) but() together(一起) with(with) the proteins(蛋白质),(,) forms(形成) the molecular(分子) machinery(机制):(:) the spliceosome(剪接体).(.) In(In) human(人类) cells(细胞),(,) the snRNA(snRNA) of(of) the spliceosomes(剪接体) also() moves(移动) into(into) the cytoplasm(细胞质).(.) In(In) other(其他) organisms(生物体),(,) such as(例如) baker(面包)'s('s) yeast(酵母),(,) which(which) is(is) often(通常) used() as(as) a(a) model(模式) organism(生物) in(in) research(研究),(,) scientists(科学家们) had(had) thought(认为) that(that) the snRNA(snRNA) of(of) the spliceosomes(剪接体) never(从未) left(离开) the cell nucleus(细胞核).(.) The reason(原因) for(for) the evolutionary(进化) development(发展) to(to) export(输出) snRNA(snRNA) before(before) incorporation(掺入) into(into) the spliceosomes(剪接体) of(of) human() cells(细胞) was() also() a(一个) mystery(神秘).(.)
"(")Our(我们) experiments(实验) show(表明) that(that) in fact(实际上) the snRNA(snRNA) of(of) the spliceosomes(剪接体) also() migrates(迁移) into(into) the cytoplasm(细胞质中) in(in) yeast(酵母),"(,") said() Professor(教授) Heike(Heike) Krebber(Krebber),(,) Head(主任) of(of) the Department() of(of) Molecular Genetics(分子遗传学) at(at) the Institute(研究所) for(for) Microbiology(微生物学) and() Genetics(遗传学) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) ()ttingen(廷根).(.) In(In) a(a) second(第二) step(),(,) the researchers(研究人员) answered(回答) the question(问题) as(as) to(to) why(为什么) the messenger(信使) RNA(RNA) of(of) the spliceosomes(剪接体) actually(实际) moves(移动) into(into) the cytoplasm(细胞质).(.) It() was() unclear(不清楚) because(因为) the spliceosomes(剪接体)'(') task(任务) is(is) to(to) cut() out(out) individual(单个) RNA(RNA) regions(区域) and() this() takes(发生) place(发生) back(back) in(in) the cell nucleus(细胞核).(.) The team(小组) of(of) researchers(研究) manipulated(操纵) the yeast(酵母) by(通过) genetic(遗传) experiments(实验) so(so) that(that) the precursors(前体) of(of) snRNA(snRNA) no() longer() changed(变化) in(in) the cytoplasm(细胞质中).(.) The observation(观察结果):(:) "(")The spliceosomes(剪接体) attempt(试图) to(to) work(工作) with(with) the precursors(前体),(,) the unfinished(未完成) snRNA,(snRNA,) and() this() cannot(不能) function(作用) as(as) it's(it's) supposed(假定) to,"(to,") said() Krebber(Krebber).(.) "(")This() is() the reason(原因) that(that) healthy(健康) cells(细胞) must(必须) first(首先) send() the precursors(前体) of(of) messenger(信使) RNA(RNA) out(out) of(of) the cell nucleus(细胞核) immediately(立即) after(after) their(它们) production(生产):(:) it() is() to(to) prevent(防止) them(它们) from() being() used(使用) by() the developing(发育) spliceosomes(剪接体).(.) This(这种) basic(基本) understanding(理解) is(is) important(重要) in order to(为了) identify(确定) the underlying(根本) cause(原因) of(of) the development(发展) of(of) diseases(疾病).(.)

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