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智科眼: 双语看懂新世界
生态 104
Biological(生物) control(控制) of(of) the brown(褐色) marmorated(恶臭) stink(恶臭) bug(臭虫),(,) an(an) invasive(入侵) pest(害虫) that(that) devastates(毁灭性的) gardens(花园) and() crops(作物),(,) would() be(be) more() effective(有效) in(in) natural(自然) areas(区域) bordering(接壤) crops(作物) or(或者) at times(有时) when(when) certain(某些) insecticides(杀虫剂) aren(没有)'t('t) being(being) applied(施用),(,) according to(根据) a(一种) new() Oregon(俄勒冈州) State(状态) University(大学) study(研究).(.)
The study(研究),(,) published(发表) in(in) the Journal(杂志) of(of) Economic Entomology(经济昆虫学),(,) advances(进展) the understanding(认识) of(of) using(使用) the samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) for(for) biological(生物) control(控制) of(of) the brown(褐色) marmorated(恶臭) stink(恶臭) bug(臭虫),(,) and() has(has) significant(重大) implications(影响) for(for) Oregon(俄勒冈州)'s('s) growers(种植者) of(of) orchard(果园) fruits(水果) and() nuts(坚果),(,) said() David(大卫) Lowenstein(Lowenstein),(,) a(a) postdoctoral(博士后) research(研究) associate(关联) in(in) Oregon(俄勒冈) State()'s('s) College(大学) of(of) Agricultural(农业) Sciences(科学) and() lead(lead) author(作者) on(on) the study(研究).(.)
Biological control(生物防治) is() the use(利用) of(of) beneficial(有益) insects(昆虫) to(to) manage(管理) other(其他) insects(昆虫),(,) which(which) means(意味着) using(使用) less(较少) pesticides(杀虫剂).(.) The brown(褐色) marmorated(恶臭) stink() bug(臭虫),(,) which(which) is(is) native(原产) to(to) east() Asia(),(,) has(has) a(a) taste(品尝) for(for) more(more) than(than) 100(100) types() of(of) crops(作物),(,) including(包括) blueberries(蓝莓),(,) wine() grapes(葡萄),(,) cherries(樱桃) and() hazelnuts(榛子).(.) During(During) the 1990s,(1990s,) it() invaded(入侵) the United States(美国) and() is() now(目前) found(发现) in(in) 44(44) states(),(,) causing(造成) millions(百万) of(of) dollars(美元) in(in) crop(作物) damage(损失).(.)
With(With) funding(资助) from(from) the United States(美国) Department() of(of) Agriculture(农业)'s('s) Specialty(专业) Crop(作物) Research(研究) Initiative(计划),(,) more(more) than(than) 50(50) researchers(研究人员) across(across) the U(U) .(.) S.(S.) are(are) studying(研究) the stink(恶臭) bug(臭虫) to(to) find(寻找) management(管理) solutions(解决方案),(,) including(包括) those(那些) at(at) Oregon(俄勒冈州) State().(.)
The stink(恶臭) bug(臭虫) was() first(first) detected(发现) in(in) Oregon(俄勒冈州) in(in) 2004(2004) .(.) Since(Since) then(then),(,) OSU() researchers(研究人员) have() found(发现) the pest(害虫) in(in) 24(24) of(of) Oregon(俄勒冈州)'s('s) 36(36) counties(),(,) and() in(in) all(all) of(of) the state()'s('s) major(主要) fruit(水果)-()producing() regions().(.) The bug() also() causes(造成) nuisance(滋扰) issues(问题) when(when) aggregating(聚集) on(on) the side(一侧) of(of) homes(房屋) and() sheds() in(in) the fall(秋季).(.)
The samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂),(,) which(which) is(is) smaller() than(than) a(a) pinhead(针头),(,) is(is) native(原产) to(to) the same(相同) region(地区) in(in) east() Asia() as(as) the brown(褐色) marmorated() stink(恶臭) bug(臭虫).(.) It() lays() its(它的) eggs(鸡蛋) inside(inside) stink() bug(臭虫) eggs(鸡蛋),(,) preventing(防止) the stink() bugs() from(from) hatching(孵化).(.) Although(虽然) it() is() unknown(不知) how(如何) it() arrived(抵达) in(in) the U(U) .(.) S.,(S.,) surveys(调查) conducted(进行) in(in) 2014-15(2014-15) detected(发现) the wasp(黄蜂) in(in) several(几个) locations(地方).(.) It() was() discovered(发现) in(in) Oregon(俄勒冈州)'s('s) Willamette(威拉米特) Valley(河谷) in(in) 2016.(2016.)
Oregon(俄勒冈州) State(状态) study(研究) investigated(调查) the impacts(影响) of(of) different(不同) insecticides(杀虫剂),(,) commonly(常用) used(使用) in(in) orchard crops(果园作物),(,) on(on) samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) survival(生存) and() reproduction(繁殖).(.) Some(一些) insecticides(杀虫剂) were(were) highly(高度) lethal(致命) to(to) the wasp(黄蜂) and() a(a) few(少数) were(were) compatible(相容) with(with) using(使用) the wasp(黄蜂) for(for) biological control(生物防治).(.)
Lowenstein(Lowenstein) said() the research(研究) was() necessary(必要) for(for) growers(种植者),(,) especially(特别) those() in(in) Oregon(俄勒冈州)'s('s) hazelnut(榛子) industry(行业),(,) who(who) use(使用) insecticides(杀虫剂) but() who(who) also() want() to(to) use() the samurai(武士) wasp() to(to) control(控制) stink(恶臭) bugs(臭虫).(.) They(他们) want() to(to) know(知道) which(which) insecticides(杀虫剂) will(will) be(be) less(较小) harmful(危害) to(to) the wasp(黄蜂) and() when(when) to(to) spray(喷洒),(,) Lowenstein(Lowenstein) said().(.)
"(")Since(自从) the discovery(发现) of(of) the samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) in(in) Oregon(俄勒冈州),(,) our(我们) research(研究) group(小组) at(at) OSU() has(has) proposed(提出了) biocontrol(生物控制) for(for) managing(管理) the brown(褐色) marmorated(恶臭) stink() bug(臭虫),"(,") Lowenstein(斯坦) said().(.) "We("We) needed(需要) to(to) validate(验证) the compatibility(兼容性) of(of) this(这种) wasp(黄蜂) in(in) a(a) commercial(商业) environment(环境) where(where) insecticides(杀虫剂) are(are) being(being) used(使用)."(.")
The researchers(研究人员) studied(研究了) samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) compatibility(兼容性) with(with) nine(九种) conventional(常规) and() organic insecticides(有机杀虫剂) commonly(常用) used(使用) in(in) integrated(综合) pest(虫害) management(管理) in(in) perennial(年生) crops(作物),(,) both(both) in(in) the laboratory(实验室) and() in(in) three(三个) hazelnut(榛子) orchards(果园) in(in) the Willamette(威拉米特) Valley(河谷).(.)
They(他们) found(发现) that(that) the active ingredients(活性成分) in(in) two(两种) classes() of(of) insecticides(杀虫剂)()neonicotinoids(新烟碱类) and() pyrethroids(拟除虫菊酯)()killed(杀死) more(更多) samurai(武士) wasps(黄蜂) than(than) the others(其他),(,) both(both) in(in) the field(田间) and() in(in) the lab(实验室).(.) Both() classes() are() "(")broad-spectrum(广谱)"(") insecticides(杀虫剂),(,) which(which) are(are) designed(旨在) to(to) kill(杀死) or() manage(管理) a variety of(各种) insects(昆虫).(.)
However(然而),(,) more than() 50(50) percent() of(of) wasps(黄蜂) survived(存活) contact(接触) with(with) insecticides(杀虫剂) that(that) are(are) better() targeted(靶向) to(to) control(控制) chewing(咀嚼) insects(昆虫),(,) such(such) as(as) filbertworm(蚯蚓) larvae(幼虫),(,) in(in) hazelnut(榛子).(.)
"(")For(For) someone() who(who) wants(希望) biological(生物) control(控制) for(for) samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂),(,) it's(it's) best(最好) to(to) time(time) it() when(when) you() aren()'t('t) applying(使用) chemicals(化学品) unless(除非) you() are(are) using(使用) those(那些) more() targeted(针对性) compounds(化合物),"(,") Lowenstein(斯坦) said().(.)
Orchards(果园) may(可能) also() benefit(受益) from(from) biological(生物) control(控制) if(如果) samurai(武士) wasps(黄蜂) are(are) released(释放) in(in) unsprayed(未喷洒) areas(地区) adjacent(相邻) to(to) agriculture(农业) and() in(in) urban(城市) areas(区域),(,) where(where) the samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) is(is) thriving(蓬勃).(.) In(In) the last(过去) () years(两年) OSU(俄勒冈) has(has) released(发布) the wasp(黄蜂) at(at) about(大约) 60(60) sites(地点) in(in) the state().(.) At(At) about(大约) 40(40) percent() of(of) those(这些) sites(网站) the wasp(黄蜂) has(has) survived(存活) into(into) the following(以下) season().(.)
The wasp(黄蜂) isn(不是)'t('t) commercially(商业上) available(可获得) and() OSU(OSU) rears(里尔斯) it() primarily(主要) for(for) research(研究),(,) but(但是) the insects(昆虫) can(可以) be(be) distributed(分发) to(to) an(一个) Oregon(俄勒冈州) location() upon(upon) request(要求),(,) Lowenstein(Lowenstein) said(),(,) adding(补充) that(that) the samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) isn()'t('t) harmful(有害) to(to) people().(.)
"(")There(There)'s('s) no() way(方法) you() are(are) going() to(to) confuse(混淆) this() with(with) a(a) yellowjacket(黄衣).(.) They(他们) aren()'t('t) interested(兴趣) in(in) stinging(刺痛) people(),"(,") he() said().(.) "If("If) you() have() a(一个) samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) on(on) your(你的) property(财产) you() won(赢得)'t('t) even(甚至) know(知道) it's(it's) there(存在) unless(除非) you() are() seeing(看到) its() effect(影响),(,) which(which) is(is) less() stink() bugs(漏洞)."(.")
Oregon(俄勒冈州) State(状态) hosts() a(一个) website(网站) with(with) the latest(最新) news(消息) about(关于) the brown(棕色) marmorated(marmorated) stink(恶臭) bug(臭虫),(,) photos(照片) to(to) help(帮助) identify(识别) it,(it,) and() instructions(说明) on(on) how(如何) to(to) report(报告) sightings(目击).(.) A(A) fact sheet(记录表) about(有关) the samurai(武士) wasp(黄蜂) is(is) available() through(通过) the OSU(俄勒冈州立) Extension(扩展) Service(服务).(.)

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