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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
材料科学 31090
University(大学) of(of) Colorado(科罗拉多) Boulder(博尔德) researchers(研究人员) have() developed(开发) nanobio(nanobio)-()hybrid(杂交) organisms(生物) capable(能够) of(of) using(利用) airborne(空气中) carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) and() nitrogen(氮气) to(to) produce(生产) a variety of(各种) plastics(塑料) and() fuels(燃料),(,) a(a) promising(有希望) first(第一) step() toward(迈向) low-cost(低成本) carbon() sequestration(封存) and() eco(生态)-()friendly(友好) manufacturing(制造) for(for) chemicals(化学品).(.)
By(通过) using(使用) light()-()activated(活化) quantum(量子) dots() to(to) fire() particular(特定) enzymes() within(within) microbial(微生物) cells(细胞),(,) the researchers(研究人员) were(were) able(能够) to(to) create(创建) "(")living(生活) factories(工厂)"(") that() eat() harmful(有害) CO2(二氧化碳) and() convert(转化) it() into(into) useful(有用) products(产品) such(such) as() biodegradable plastic(可生物降解的塑料),(,) gasoline(汽油),(,) ammonia() and() biodiesel(生物柴油).(.)
"(")The innovation(创新) is(is) a(a) testament(证明) to(to) the power(力量) of(of) biochemical(生物化学) processes(过程),"(,") said() Prashant(Prashant) Nagpal(Nagpal),(,) lead(lead) author(作者) of(of) the research(研究) and() an(an) assistant(助理) professor(教授) in(in) CU(CU) Boulder(博尔德)'s('s) Department() of(of) Chemical(化学) and() Biological Engineering(生物工程).(.) "We're("We're) looking() at(at) a(一种) technique(技术) that(that) could(可以) improve(改善) CO2(二氧化碳) capture() to(to) combat(应对) climate change(气候变化) and() one(one) day(一天) even(甚至) potentially(有可能) replace(取代) carbon()-()intensive(密集型) manufacturing(制造业) for(for) plastics(塑料) and() fuels(燃料)."(.")
The project(项目) began(开始) in(in) 2013,(2013,) when(when) Nagpal(Nagpal) and() his() colleagues(同事) began(开始) exploring(探索) the broad(广泛) potential(潜力) of(of) nanoscopic(纳米级) quantum(量子) dots(),(,) which(which) are() tiny() semiconductors(半导体) similar(类似) to(to) those(那些) used(使用) in(in) television(电视机) sets(集合).(.) Quantum(量子) dots() can(可以) be() injected(注入) into(into) cells(细胞) passively(被动) and() are() designed(设计) to(to) attach() and() self()-()assemble(组装) to(to) desired(所需) enzymes() and() then(然后) activate(激活) these(这些) enzymes() on(on) command(命令) using(使用) specific(特定) wavelengths(波长) of(of) light().(.)
Nagpal(Nagpal) wanted(想知道) to(to) see(see) if(是否) quantum(量子) dots() could(可以) act as(作为) a(a) spark plug(火花塞) to(to) fire() particular(特定) enzymes() within(within) microbial(微生物) cells(细胞) that(that) have(具有) the means(手段) to(to) convert(转化) airborne(空气中) CO2(二氧化碳) and() nitrogen(),(,) but() do() not(不能) do(do) so(这样) naturally(自然地) due to(由于) a(a) lack(缺乏) of(of) photosynthesis(光合作用).(.)
By(通过) diffusing(扩散) the specially(专门)-()tailored(定制) dots() into(into) the cells(细胞) of(of) common(常见) microbial(微生物) species(种类) found(发现) in(in) soil(土壤),(,) Nagpal(Nagpal) and() his() colleagues(同事) bridged(桥接) the gap(差距).(.) Now(现在),(,) exposure(暴露) to(to) even(甚至) small amounts(少量) of(of) indirect(间接) sunlight(阳光) would(would) activate(激活) the microbes(微生物)'(') CO2(二氧化碳) appetite(食欲),(,) without(而不) a(a) need(需要) for(for) any(任何) source(来源) of(of) energy(能量) or() food(食物) to(to) carry(进行) out(out) the energy(能源)-()intensive(密集) biochemical(生化) conversions(转化).(.)
"(")Each() cell(细胞) is(is) making(制造) millions(百万) of(of) these(这些) chemicals(化学) and() we(我们) showed(发现) they(它们) could(可能) exceed(超过) their(它们) natural(天然) yield(产量) by(by) close(接近) to(to) 200(200) percent(),"(,") Nagpal(Nagpal) said().(.)
The microbes(微生物),(,) which(which) lie(处于) dormant(休眠) in(in) water(),(,) release(释放) their() resulting(产生) product(产物) to(to) the surface(表面),(,) where(where) it() can(可以) be() skimmed off(撇去) and() harvested(收获) for(for) manufacturing(制造).(.) Different(不同) combinations(组合) of(of) dots() and() light() produce(产生) different(不同) products(产品):(:) Green(绿色) wavelengths(波长) cause(导致) the bacteria(细菌) to(to) consume(消耗) nitrogen() and() produce(产生) ammonia() while() redder() wavelengths(波长) make(使) the microbes(微生物) feast(盛宴) on(on) CO2(二氧化碳) to(to) produce(产生) plastic(塑料) instead(代替).(.)
The process(过程) also() shows promising(有希望) signs(迹象) of(of) being(being) able(能够) to(to) operate(运作) at(at) scale(规模).(.) The study(研究) found(发现) that() even(即使) when(when) the microbial(微生物) factories(工厂) were(were) activated(激活) consistently(一致) for(for) hours(小时) at(at) a(a) time(),(,) they(它们) showed(表明) few(few) signs(迹象) of(of) exhaustion(耗尽) or() depletion(消耗),(,) indicating(表明) that(that) the cells(细胞) can(可以) regenerate(再生) and() thus(从而) limit(限制) the need(需要) for(for) rotation(旋转).(.)
"We("We) were(were) very(非常) surprised(惊讶) that(that) it() worked() as(as) elegantly(优雅) as(as) it() did(did),"(,") Nagpal(Nagpal) said().(.) "We're("We're) just(刚刚) getting(获得) started(开始) with(with) the synthetic(合成) applications(应用程序)."(.")
The ideal(理想) futuristic(未来主义) scenario(情景),(,) Nagpal(Nagpal) said(),(,) would() be(be) to(to) have(have) single()-()family() homes(住宅) and() businesses(企业) pipe(管道) their(它们) CO2(二氧化碳) emissions(排放) directly(直接) to(to) a(一个) nearby(附近) holding(保持) pond(池塘),(,) where(where) microbes(微生物) would() convert(转化) them(它们) to(to) a(a) bioplastic(生物塑料).(.) The owners(业主) would() be(be) able(能够) to(to) sell(出售) the resulting(导致) product(产品) for(for) a(a) small(微薄) profit(利润) while(同时) essentially(基本) offsetting(抵消了) their(他们) own(自己) carbon() footprint(足迹).(.)
"(")Even(即使) if(如果) the margins(利润) are(are) low() and() it() can()'t('t) compete(竞争) with(with) petrochemicals(石化) on(on) a(a) pure() cost(成本) basis(基础),(,) there() is(is) still(仍然) societal(社会) benefit(效益) to(to) doing() this(这样),"(,") Nagpal(Nagpal) said().(.) "If("If) we(我们) could(能够) convert(转换) even(甚至) a(a) small() fraction(部分) of(of) local(当地) ditch(沟渠) ponds(池塘),(,) it() would() have(have) a(a) sizeable(相当大) impact(影响) on(on) the carbon() output(产生) of(of) towns(城镇).(.) It() wouldn()'t('t) be(be) asking(要求) much() for(for) people(人们) to(to) implement(实施).(.) Many(许多) already(已经) make(制作) beer(啤酒) at(at) home(),(,) for example(例如),(,) and() this() is(is) no() more(more) complicated(复杂)."(.")
The focus(重点) now(现在),(,) he() said(),(,) will() shift(转换) to(to) optimizing(优化) the conversion(转化) process(过程) and() bringing(引进) on(on) new(新的) undergraduate(本科生) students(学生).(.) Nagpal(Nagpal) is(is) looking(希望) to(to) convert(转换) the project(项目) into(into) an(an) undergraduate(本科) lab(实验室) experiment(实验) in(in) the fall(秋季) semester(学期),(,) funded(资助) by() a(a) CU(CU) Boulder(巨石) Engineering(工程) Excellence(卓越) Fund(基金) grant(资助).(.) Nagpal(Nagpal) credits(信用) his() current(现在) students(学生) with(with) sticking(坚持) with(with) the project(项目) over(over) the course(过程) of(of) many() years().(.)
"It("It) has(has) been(been) a(a) long(漫长) journey(旅程) and() their(他们) work(工作) has(has) been(been) invaluable(非常宝贵),"(,") he() said().(.) "I("I) think(认为) these(这些) results(结果) show(表明) that(that) it() was() worth(值得) it."(it.")

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