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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
普通物理 17529
Two(两个) theoretical(理论) physicists(物理学家) at(at) the University(大学) of(of) California(加利福尼亚),(,) Davis(戴维斯) have(have) a(a) new(新的) candidate(候选) for(for) dark matter(暗物质),(,) and() a(a) possible(可能) way(方法) to(to) detect(检测) it.(it.) They(他们) presented(提出) their(他们) work(作品) June(6月) 6(6) at(at) the Planck(普朗克) 2019(2019) conference(会议) in(in) Granada(格拉纳达),(,) Spain(西班牙) and() it() has(has) been(been) submitted(提交) for(for) publication(出版).(.)
Dark matter(暗物质) is(is) thought(思想) to(to) make() up(up) just(只是) over(over) a(a) quarter(四分之一) of(of) our(我们) universe(宇宙),(,) with(with) most() of(of) the rest(其余) being() even(甚至)-()more(以上) mysterious(神秘) dark() energy(能量).(.) It() cannot be(不能) seen(看到) directly(直接),(,) but() dark matter(暗物质)'s('s) presence(存在) can(可以) be(be) detected(检测到) because(因为) its(它的) gravity(重力) determines(决定了) the shape(形状) of(of) distant(遥远) galaxies(星系) and() other(其他) objects(物体).(.)
Many(许多) physicists(物理学家) believe(认为) that(that) dark matter(暗物质) is(is) made(made) up(up) of(of) some(一些) particle(粒子) yet() to(to) be(be) discovered(发现).(.) For(For) some() time(时间),(,) the favorite(最喜欢的) candidate(候选人) has(has) been(been) the Weakly() Interacting(相互作用) Massive(大规模) Particle(粒子) or() WIMP.(WIMP.) But(但是) despite(尽管) years() of(of) effort(努力),(,) WIMPs(懦夫) have(have) so far(迄今) not(尚未) shown() up(up) in(in) experiments designed(实验设计) to(to) detect(检测) them(它们).(.)
"We("We) still(仍然) don(don)'t('t) know(知道) what(what) dark matter(暗物质) is,"(is,") said() John(约翰) Terning(Terning),(,) professor(教授) of(of) physics(物理学) at(at) UC(UC) Davis(戴维斯) and() coauthor(合着者) on(on) the paper(论文).(.) "(")The primary(主要) candidate(候选人) for(for) a(a) long time(持久) was(was) the WIMP,(WIMP,) but() it() looks(看起来) like(喜欢) that(that)'s('s) almost(几乎) completely(完全) ruled out(排除)."(.")
An(一个) alternative(替代方案) to(to) the WIMP(WIMP) model(模型) of(of) dark matter(暗物质) calls(调用) for(for) a(a) form(形式) of(of) "(")dark() electromagnetism(电磁)"(") including(包括) "(")dark() photons(光子)"(") and() other(其他) particles(粒子).(.) Dark() photons(光子) would(would) have(have) some(一些) weak() coupling(耦合) with(with) "(")regular(常规)"(") photons(光子).(.)
In(In) their(他们) new() paper(论文),(,) Terning(Terning) and() postdoctoral(博士后) researcher(研究员) Christopher(克里斯) Verhaaren(Verhaaren) add(增加) a(a) twist(扭曲) to(to) this(这一) idea(想法):(:) a(a) dark() magnetic() "(")monopole(单极子)"(") that(that) would(would) interact(相互作用) with(with) the dark() photon(光子).(.)
In(In) the macroscopic(宏观) world(世界),(,) magnets(磁铁) always(总是) have(have) two(两个) poles(),(,) north() and() south().(.) A(A) monopole(单极子) is(is) a(a) particle(粒子) that(that) acts(行为) like() one(一种) end() of(of) a(a) magnet(磁铁).(.) Monopoles(单极子) are(are) predicted(预测) by(by) quantum theory(量子理论),(,) but() have(have) never(从未) been(been) observed(观察) in(in) an(一个) experiment(实验).(.) The scientists(科学家们) suggest(认为) that(that) dark() monopoles(单极子) would(would) interact(相互作用) with(with) dark() photons(光子) and() dark() electrons(电子) in(in) the same(一样) way(方法) that(that) theory(理论) predicts(预测) electrons(电子) and() photons(光子) interact(相互作用) with(with) monopoles(单极子).(.)
A(A) new() way(方法) to(to) detect(探测) dark matter(暗物质)
And() that(that) implies(意味着) a(a) way(方法) to(to) detect(检测) these(这些) dark(黑暗) particles(粒子).(.) The physicist(物理学家) Paul(保罗·) Dirac(迪拉克) predicted(预测) that(that) an(一个) electron(电子) moving(运动) in(in) a(a) circle(圆圈) near() a(a) monopole(单极子) would(would) pick(选择) up(up) a(a) change(发生变化) of(of) phase(相位) in(in) its() wave function(波函数).(.) Because(因为) electrons(电子) exist(存在) as(as) both(both) particles(粒子) and() waves() in(in) quantum theory(量子理论),(,) the same(同一) electron(电子) could(可以) pass(通过) on(on) either(either) side(侧面) of(of) the monopole(单极) and() as a result(因此) be(be) slightly() out of(out of) phase() on(on) the other side(对方).(.)
This(这种) interference pattern(干涉图),(,) called(称为) the Aharonov-Bohm effect(阿哈拉诺夫玻姆效应),(,) means(意味着) that(that) an(一个) electron(电子) passing(通过) around(围绕) a(a) magnetic field(磁场) is(is) influenced(影响) by(by) it,(it,) even if(即使) it() does() not() pass() through(通过) the field() itself(本身).(.)
Terning(Terning) and() Verhaaren(Verhaaren) argue(争论) that(that) you() could(可以) detect(探测) a(a) dark(黑暗) monopole(单极子) because of(由于) the way(方式) it() shifts() the phase(相位) of(of) electrons(电子) as(as) they(它们) pass(经过) by.(by.)
"(")This() is(is) a(a) new(新的) type(新型) of(of) dark matter(暗物质) but() it() comes() with(with) a(a) new() way(方式) to(to) look(寻找) for(for) it() as well(),"(,") Terning(Terning) said().(.)
Electron beams(电子束) are(are) relatively(相对) easy(容易) to(to) come(产生) by:(by:) electron microscopes(电子显微镜) were(were) used(使用) to(to) demonstrate(证明) the Aharonov-Bohm effect(阿哈拉诺夫玻姆效应) in(in) the 1960s,(1960s,) and() electron beam technology(电子束技术) has(has) improved(改善) with(with) time(时间),(,) Terning(Terning) noted(指出).(.)
Theoretically(从理论上),(,) dark matter(暗物质) particles(粒子) are(are) streaming() through(通过) us(我们) all(所有) the time(时间).(.) To(To) be(be) detectable(检测到) in(in) Terning(Terning) and() Verhaaren(Verhaaren)'s('s) model(模型),(,) the monopoles(单极子) would(would) have to(必须) be(be) excited(激发) by(by) the Sun(太阳).(.) Then(然后) they(他们) would() take(花费) about(about) a(a) month(个月) to(to) reach(到达) Earth(地球),(,) traveling() at(at) about(about) a(a) thousandth(千分之一) of(of) the speed(速度) of(of) light().(.)
On the other hand(另一方面),(,) the predicted(预测) phase shift(相移) is(is) extremely(非常) small()()smaller() than(than) that(that) needed(所需) to(to) detect(检测) gravity waves(重力波),(,) for example(例如).(.) However(然而),(,) Terning(Terning) noted(指出) that(that) when(when) the LIGO(LIGO) gravity wave(重力波) experiment(实验) was(was) first(首次) proposed(提出),(,) the technology(技术) to(to) make(使) it() work(工作) did(did) not() exist(存在) ()instead(代替),(,) technology(技术) caught(捕获) up(up) over(over) time(时间).(.)

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