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智科眼: 双语看懂新科研
地球科学 1773
The winter(冬季) ice() on(on) the surface(表面) of(of) Antarctica(南极洲)'s('s) Weddell(Weddell) Sea() occasionally(偶尔) forms(形成) an(一个) enormous(巨大) hole().(.) A(A) hole() that(that) appeared(出现) in(in) 2016(2016) and() 2017(2017) drew() intense(强烈) curiosity(好奇) from(from) scientists(科学家) and() reporters(记者).(.) Though(虽然) even(甚至) bigger(更大) gaps(差距) had(had) formed(形成了) decades(几十年) before(before),(,) this() was(was) the first(第一) time() oceanographers(海洋学家) had(had) a(a) chance(机会) to(to) truly(真正) monitor(监测) the unexpected(意外) gap(差距) in(in) Antarctic(南极) winter(冬季) sea ice(海冰).(.)
A(A) new() study(研究) led(领导) by(by) the University(大学) of(of) Washington(华盛顿) combines(结合了) satellite images(卫星影象) of(of) the sea ice(海冰) cover(覆盖),(,) robotic(机器人) drifters(漂流者) and() even(甚至) seals(海豹) outfitted(配备) with(with) sensors(传感器) to(to) better(更好地) understand(了解) the phenomenon(现象).(.) The research(研究) explores(探讨了) why(为什么) this(这个) hole() appears(出现) in(in) only() some() years(年内),(,) and() what(what) role(作用) it() could(可以) play(发挥) in(in) the larger(更大) ocean circulation(大洋环流).(.)
The study(研究) was(was) published(发表) June(6月) 10(10) in(in) the journal(杂志) Nature(自然).(.)
"We("We) thought(思想) this(这个) large() hole() in(in) the sea ice(海冰)()known as(被称为) a(a) polynya(冰间湖)()was(was) something(东西) that(that) was(was) rare(罕见),(,) maybe(可能是) a(a) process(过程) that(that) had(had) gone(消失) extinct(灭绝).(.) But() the events(事件) in(in) 2016(2016) and() 2017(2017) forced(迫使) us(我们) to(to) reevaluate(重新评估) that(that),"(,") said() lead(领导) author(作者) Ethan(Ethan) Campbell(坎贝尔),(,) a(a) UW(UW) doctoral(博士生) student(学生) in(in) oceanography(海洋学).(.) "(")Observations(观测) show(显示) that(that) the recent(最近) polynyas(polynyas) opened(打开) from(from) a(a) combination(组合) of(of) factors(因素)()one(一种) being() the unusual(不寻常) ocean(海洋) conditions(条件),(,) and() the other() being() a(a) series(一系列) of(of) very(非常) intense(强烈) storms(风暴) that(that) swirled(漩涡) over(over) the Weddell(Weddell) Sea() with(with) almost(几乎) hurricane(飓风)-()force(强制) winds()."(.")
A(A) "(")polynya(冰间湖),"(,") a(a) Russian(俄语) word(单词) that(that) roughly(大致) means() "(")hole() in(in) the ice(),"(,") can form(零型) near shore(近岸) as(as) wind() pushes() the ice() around(周围).(.) But(但是) it() can(可以) also(并且) appear(出现) far() from(from) the coast(海岸) and() stick(坚持) around(围绕) for(for) weeks() to(to) months(),(,) where(where) it() acts as(作为) an(一个) oasis(绿洲) for(for) penguins(企鹅),(,) whales(鲸鱼) and() seals(海豹) to(to) pop(流行) up(up) and() breathe(呼吸).(.)
This(这个) particular(特殊) spot(地点) far() from(from) the Antarctic(南极) coast(海岸) often(往往) has(has) small() openings(开口) and() has(has) seen(见过) large(大型) polynyas(polynyas) before(before).(.) The biggest(最大) known(已知) polynyas(polynyas) at(at) that(that) location(位置) were(were) in(in) 1974,(1974,) 1975(1975) and() 1976,(1976,) just(只是) after(after) the first(第一) satellites(卫星) were(were) launched(发射),(,) when(when) an(一个) area(地区) the size(大小) of(of) New Zealand(新西兰) remained(仍然) ice-free(无冰) through(通过) three() consecutive(连续) Antarctic(南极) winters(冬季) despite(尽管) air temperatures(气温) far() below(below) freezing(冷冻).(.)
Campbell(坎贝尔) joined(加入) the UW(UW) as(as) a(a) graduate(研究生) student(学生) in(in) 2016(2016) to(to) better(更好地) understand(了解) this(这一) mysterious(神秘) phenomenon(现象).(.) In(In) a(a) stroke(中风) of(of) scientific(科学) luck(运气),(,) a(a) big() one(一个) appeared(出现了) for the first time(首次) in(in) decades(几十年).(.) A(A) NASA(美国宇航局) satellite image(卫星影象) in(in) August(8月) 2016(2016) drew() public(公众) attention(关注) to(to) a(a) 33,000-(33,000-)square-kilometer(平方公里) (13,000-((13,000-)square(平方)-()mile(英里))()) gap(间隙) that(that) appeared(出现) for(for) three() weeks().(.) An(一个) even(甚至) bigger(更大) gap(差距),(,) of(of) 50,000(50,000) square kilometers(平方公里) (19,000((19,000) square(平方) miles(英里))()) appeared(出现了) in(in) September(9月) and() October(10月) of(of) 2017.(2017.)
The Southern Ocean(南大洋) is(is) thought(思想) to(to) play() a(a) key(关键) role(作用) in(in) global(全球) ocean currents(海流) and() carbon cycles(碳循环),(,) but() its() behavior(行为) is(is) poorly understood(知之甚少).(.) It() hosts(寄主) some(一些) of(of) the fiercest(猛烈) storms(风暴) on(on) the planet(地球),(,) with(with) winds(大风) whipping(鞭打) uninterrupted(不间断) around(周围) the continent(大陆) in(in) the 24-(24-)hour(小时) darkness(黑暗) of(of) polar(极地) winter(冬季).(.) The new() study(研究) used(使用) observations(观测) from(from) the Southern Ocean(南大洋) Carbon() and() Climate(气候) Observations(观测) and() Modeling(建模) project(项目),(,) or(或者) SOCCOM,(SOCCOM,) which(which) puts out(生产) instruments(仪器) that(that) drift(漂移) with(with) the currents(海流) to(to) monitor(监测) Antarctic(南极) conditions(条件).(.)
The study(研究) also() used(使用) data(数据) from(from) the long-running(长期运行) Argo(ARGO) ocean(海洋) observing program(观测程序),(,) elephant() seals(海豹) that(that) beam() data(数据) back() to(to) shore(海岸),(,) weather stations(气象台) and() decades(十年) of(of) satellite images(卫星影象).(.)
"(")This(这种) study(研究) shows(表明) that(that) this(这项) polynya(冰间湖) is(is) actually(实际上) caused(引起) by(by) a number of(许多) factors(因素) that(that) all(所有) have to(不得不) line() up(up) for(for) it() to(to) happen(发生),"(,") said() co-(共同)author(作者) Stephen(斯蒂芬·) Riser(立管),(,) a(a) UW(UW) professor(教授) of(of) oceanography(海洋学).(.) "In("In) any(任何) given(给定) year() you() could(可能) have(have) several(一些) of(of) these(这些) things(事情) happen(发生),(,) but() unless(除非) you() get(得到) them() all(所有),(,) then() you() don(don)'t('t) get(得到) a(a) polynya(冰间湖)."(.")
The study(研究) shows(表明) that(that) when(when) winds() surrounding(周围) Antarctica(南极洲) draw(得出) closer(接近) to(to) shore(岸边),(,) they(它们) promote(促进) stronger(更强) upward(向上) mixing(混合) in(in) the eastern(东部) Weddell(Weddell) Sea().(.) In(In) that(that) region(地区),(,) an(一个) underwater(水下) mountain() known as(被称为) Maud(Maud) Rise(上升) forces(迫使) dense(密集) seawater(海水) around(周围) it() and() leaves(叶片) a(a) spinning(旋转) vortex(漩涡) above(上方).(.) Two(两个) SOCCOM(SOCCOM) instruments(仪器) were(were) trapped(被困) in(in) the vortex(涡旋) above(上方) Maud(Maud) Rise(上升) and() recorded(记录) years() of(of) observations(观测) there(那里).(.)
Analysis(分析) shows(表明) that(that) when(when) the surface(表面) ocean(海洋) is(is) especially(特别) salty(),(,) as(as) seen() throughout(始终) 2016,(2016,) strong(强烈) winter(冬季) storms(风暴) can set(零集) off(off) an(一个) overturning() circulation(环流).(.) Warmer(温暖),(,) saltier(更咸) water() from(from) the depths(深处) gets() churned(搅拌) up(up) to(to) the surface(表面),(,) where(where) air chills(空气激冷) it() and() makes(使) it() denser() than(than) the water() below(below).(.) As(As) that(that) water() sinks(下沉),(,) relatively(相对) warmer(温暖) deep water(深层水) of(of) about(about) 1(1) degree Celsius(摄氏度) (34((34) F)(F)) replaces(取代) it,(it,) creating(创建) a(a) feedback loop(反馈环) where(where) ice() can()'t('t) reform(改造).(.)
Under(Under) climate change(气候变化),(,) fresh water(淡水) from(from) melting(融化) glaciers(冰川) and() other(其他) sources(来源) will() make(使) the Southern Ocean(南大洋)'s('s) surface layer(表层) less(更少) dense(密集),(,) which(which) might(可能) mean(意味着) fewer(更少) polynyas(polynyas) in(in) the future(未来).(.) But() the new() study(研究) questions(质疑) that(that) assumption(假设).(.) Many(许多) models(模型) show(表明) that(that) the winds() circling(环绕) Antarctica(南极洲) will() become(变得) stronger(更强) and(并且) draw(得出) closer(更接近) to(to) the coast(海岸)()the new() paper(论文) suggests(表明) this() would() encourage(鼓励) more(更多) polynyas(polynyas) to(to) form(形成),(,) not(不是) fewer(更少).(.)
These() are(are) the first(第一) observations(观测) to(to) prove(证明) that(that) even(即使) a(a) smaller(较小) polynya(冰间湖) like() the one(一个) in(in) 2016(2016) moves(移动) water() from(from) the surface(地表) all(所有) the way(方法) to(to) the deep ocean(深海).(.)
"(")Essentially(基本) it's(it's) a(a) flipping(翻转) over(over) of(of) the entire(整个) ocean(海洋),(,) rather than(而不) an(一个) injection(注入) of(of) surface water(地表水) on(on) a(a) one()-()way(方法) trip() from(from) the surface(地表) to(to) the deep(深处),"(,") said() co-(共同)author(作者) Earle(Earle) Wilson(威尔逊),(,) who(who) recently(最近) completed(完成了) his() doctorate(博士学位) in(in) oceanography(海洋学) at(at) the UW.(UW.)
One(一种) way(方式) that(that) a(a) surface(表面) polynya(冰间湖) matters(问题) for(for) the climate(气候) is(is) for(for) the deepest water(深层水) in(in) the oceans(海洋),(,) known as(被称为) Antarctic Bottom Water(南极底层水).(.) This(这种) cold(寒冷),(,) dense() water() lurks(潜伏) below(below) all(所有) the other(其他) water().(.) Where(Where) and() how(如何) it's(it's) created(创建) affects(影响) its() characteristics(特性),(,) and() would(would) have(have) ripple(纹波) effects(影响) on(on) other(其他) major(主要) ocean currents(海流).(.)
"(")Right now(就在此刻) people(人们) think(认为) most() of(of) the bottom water(油罐底水) is(is) forming(形成) on(on) the Antarctic(南极) shelf(陆架),(,) but() these(这些) big(大型) offshore(近海) polynyas(polynyas) might(可能) have(have) been(been) more() common(常见) in(in) the past(过去),"(,") Riser(立管) said().(.) "We("We) need(需要) to(to) improve(改进) our(我们) models(模型) so(so) we(我们) can(可以) study(研究) this(这个) process(过程),(,) which(which) could(可能) have(have) larger-scale(大型) climate(气候) implications(影响)."(.")
Large() and() long-lasting(耐用) polynyas(polynyas) can() also() affect(影响) the atmosphere(大气层),(,) because(因为) deep water(深层水) contains(含有) carbon() from(from) lifeforms(生命形式) that(that) have(have) sunk(沉没) over(over) centuries(几个世纪) and() dissolved(溶解) on(on) their(它们) way(方法) down().(.) Once(一旦) this() water() reaches(到达) the surface(表面) that(that) carbon() could(可以) be(be) released(释放).(.)
"(")This(这种) deep reservoir(深部热储) of(of) carbon() has(has) been(been) locked away(锁藏) for(for) hundreds(数百) of(of) years(),(,) and(并且) in(in) a(a) polynya(冰间湖) it() might(可能) get(得到) ventilated(通风) at(at) the surface(地表) through(通过) this(这个) really(真正) violent(剧烈) mixing(混合),"(,") Campbell(坎贝尔) said().(.) "A("A) large(大型) carbon() outgassing event(零事件) could(可能) really(真正) whack(重打) the climate(气候) system(系统) if(如果) it() happened(发生) multiple(多个) years() in(in) a(a) row()."(.")

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